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The alopecia is a state at which the person has a hair loss. In medicine it is accepted to call all types of a hair loss an alopecia. Hair can drop out in connection with many diseases. Genetic problems, a number of diseases, reception of some medicines, and also other factors can provoke a hair loss. The hair loss always is rather serious psychological shock for each person. Long since hair were considered as a symbol of human energy and its vital forces. Today hair – a symbol of attractiveness of the person and his sexual attractiveness for an opposite sex.
Types of an alopecia
Most often the so-called androgenetichesky alopecia occurs among the population (that is baldness on man's or female type). This type of baldness makes about 95% of all types of baldness. About a half of men to fifty-year age complain of existence of noticeable symptoms of baldness. A third of women at the same age also observe some signs of an alopecia.
Among not androgenic forms of baldness manifestations are most often observed: depriving of the telogenovy baldness, a gnezdny (focal) alopecia cutting, a cicatricial alopecia, and also a hair loss as consequences of abuse of means of cosmetics. Other types of an alopecia are less often observed, however to diagnose them very difficult.
There is a set of the reasons owing to which at the person hair can begin to drop out. However all these reasons can be divided conditionally into the reasons internal and external. Speaking about the internal reasons, it should be noted change of hormonal balance in an organism, problems in the course of a metabolism, a genetic favor to baldness, autoimmune processes. The stressful state, infectious diseases, injury of skin of physical character, impact on an organism of harmful substances is the external reasons. Very often at the person baldness occurs owing to influence of several factors in a complex.
Each type of baldness arises in view of influence of certain factors. So, at loss of mature hair the disseminated hair loss is observed. As a result density of growth of hair decreases, however full baldness at the person is not observed. Mature hair drop out as a result of a number of the different reasons. The similar phenomenon can arise after the delivery in view of serious changes in an organism during pregnancy, and also as a result of reception of some medicines (contraceptive hormonal means, medicinal drugs which slow down a blood coagulation, beta adrenoblockers, interferon, means with antineoplastic action). The hair loss can arise as a result of a severe stress, both mental, and physical. Also can lead endocrine disturbances and improper feeding to loss of mature hair. So, similar problems are provoked by shortage of iron, zinc.
At loss of the growing hair scattered loss of hair as mature, and those which grow is observed. In this case hair drop out owing to fungoid mycosis, carrying out radiation therapy, drug intake (Allopyrinolum, Bromocriptinum). Also poisoning with some chemicals can become the reason of loss of the growing hair.
In case of a cicatricial alopecia on pilar part of the head smooth brilliant sites on which there are no hair bulbs at all are shown. The cicatricial alopecia is shown at people in view of existence of anomalies of development, and also defects of hair bulbs of inborn character. Also a number of infections — syphilis, a skin leushmaniosis, a herpes infection can provoke such problem. Also existence of a nevus pigmentosus, a disease of bazalnokletochny cancer is the reasons of a cicatricial alopecia. A number of factors of physical character can provoke also similar pathology: influence of alkalis and acids, frostbite, burns, radiation. A number of pathologies of ovaries, the cicatrizing pemphigus, a pituitary struma become the reasons of this form of an alopecia.
Focal (other name – gnezdny) the alopecia is the acquired illness and is shown by emergence of the roundish hairless centers of different size on integuments of the head, area of a beard, eyebrows. At the same time scarring is not observed. On the centers there are no hair at all, however other changes are not observed. On the edge of the center hair are easily pulled out and if the centers expand, then afterwards at the person full baldness can be observed. Till today exact sheets about the reasons of a focal alopecia do not exist.
The traumatic alopecia arises because of an intermittent trauma. In this case the trichotillomania, hard hairdresses, use of hardly tied bows and hairpins becomes the reason of such illness sometimes.
At a dermatomycosis of pilar part of the head the centers on which there are no hair are shown owing to influence of a fungus. As a rule, sort fungi a Microsporum and trikhofiton become the reason of this disease.
Features of an alopecia
At everyone the person about one hundred hair drop out every day. Today there is a speech about communication of an androgenic alopecia with level in blood of the person of men's hormones. So, there is even a theory that bald men of a giperseksualna. But nevertheless the alopecia is a consequence of sensitivity hair a follicle of the specific person to amount of male sex hormones in blood. At the same time women have follicles which show the high level of sensitivity to androgens, are on a head surface evenly. At the same time at men they are located mainly on the top, and also on border of growth of hair. It explains why it is characteristic men grow bald, and at women the expressed bald head at an androgenic alopecia is absent.
At the same time the focal alopecia is equally often diagnosed both for adult women and men, and for children. It develops differently: sometimes several centers of baldness appear on the head, in other cases they mention also other parts of a body covered with hair – eyebrows, a beard. These centers can grow with hair after a while or merge in a complete bald head or move. Exact causes of illness are not known, however there is an opinion that this form of an alopecia has the autoimmune nature.
Growth of hair is sometimes slowed down owing to strong stressful situations, the hair loss can be aggravated after that. Owing to influence of a stress hair follicles enter a resting phase, and after a while these follicles discard hair. Such situation conducts to a poredeniye of hair.
At the same time influence of estrogen – female sex hormones – increase a cycle of life of hair. Therefore during pregnancy hair become more dense. But sharp falling of level of estrogen and, as a result, hair actively is after the delivery observed drop out.
Diagnosis of an alopecia
In order that it is correct to make the diagnosis at an alopecia, the doctor has to conduct a complex of researches which will help to establish the reason of emergence of such problems. So, this complex includes research of functioning of a thyroid gland, carrying out an integrated analysis of blood with the purpose to define possible disturbances of functions of immune system, identification of level of androgens in blood serum. Also it is necessary to carry out reaction Wasserman's background for the purpose of a syphilis exception. At an alopecia it is also necessary to find out the number of T - and V-lymphocytes, at people with a focal alopecia their level sometimes decreases.
In the course of diagnosis the specialist also makes test with a pandiculation of hair: the hair pandiculation for a core is made without application of efforts. If the hair is removed easily, the doctor can suspect existence of a focal alopecia. Besides, studying of a core of a hair under a microscope, research of the centers of a peeling is carried out, carrying out a biopsy of pilar part of an integument of the head by which it is possible to define existence at a sick dermatomycosis, a sarcoidosis is possible, flat depriving.
Treatment of an alopecia
First of all, patients with similar problems have to realize that they existence of a set of various drugs which allegedly guarantee disposal of similar problems are cosmetics in the majority. Therefore independent selection of means for treatment of an alopecia can be inefficient, therefore, it is worth consulting with the doctor and to pass all appointed researches.
In independence of an alopecia form use of iron preparations and zinc in view of the deficit of these elements in a human body having baldness is shown to the patient.
At loss of mature hair it is necessary to remove an origin of this phenomenon, first of all. As a rule, after the cause was removed, hair grow and take a usual form. Similarly it is necessary to work also at loss of the growing hair.
Use of a surgical method of treatment of an illness is recommended to patients with a cicatricial alopecia. In the course of operation sites with hems are excised or the skin rag changes to them.
At an androgenic alopecia both medicamentous, and national medicines are applied. As a rule, at anti-androgenic therapy the result consists in suspension of a hair loss. However former density of hair is not recovered any more. Today the most effective drug for treatment of an androgenic alopecia is considered minoksidit. This means affects hair follicles and effectively prolongs a hair growth phase. Besides, at this type of an alopecia massage, electrostimulation, hypnotherapy, an electrophoresis of a number of substances is applied. However at therapy of an androgenic alopecia it is necessary to consider that process of treatment will be very long, and the first results will be noticeable only several months later. There is also surgical way of treatment of this illness by change of own hair. For this purpose hair follicles from sides and a nape of a surface of the head, that is from androgennezavisimy zones undertake. They are had to places where severe baldness is observed. But this operation suits not all people, besides the positive result is observed not always.
At a gnyozdny alopecia the illness often passes independently several years later. However perhaps repeated developing of this illness. At treatment of an illness sedative drugs are used. As local therapy are used irritating rubbing in of spirit solutions (for example, tinctures of siliculose pepper), drugs of hormones. Also drugs which promote increase of light sensitivity are used. They are applied locally and combined with ultra-violet radiation
It is possible to cure a traumatic alopecia only after wrest of hair stops. In this case the help of the psychologist or psychiatrist is sometimes necessary. At a dermatomycosis of pilar part of the head means with antifungal influence are applied. It is important to observe hygiene: to carefully wash hands, to wash all headdresses and bed linen.
Today in the world develop new methods of treatment of baldness and the subsequent hair reconstruction. So, the biggest expectations are connected with expectation of results of the researches and developments concerning cloning of hair, and also methods of stimulation of emergence of new hair.
Prevention of an alopecia
Today there are no specific methods of prevention of an alopecia. However important value in this case has a healthy and adequate diet of food. It is important to use the products containing the microelements, that is the food, necessary for active growth of hair, rich with zinc, iron, selenium. Not less important in time and it is correct to cure all diseases which can become the alopecia reason. Also it is necessary to avoid hairdresses at which hair stay in strongly tense state.
Section: Trichology (Diseases of hair)