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Amnesia (memory loss)
Amnesia is a loss of memory at which the person can lose the memoirs in whole or in part.
How amnesia is shown?
If at the person total loss of memoirs is noted, then it is about full amnesia. If the person cannot remember only some events from life, then he notes partial loss of memory. Symptoms of partial loss of memory are shown by periodic emergence of some scraps of memoirs. Nevertheless, partial amnesia causes emergence of vague images at which temporary and space characteristics are violated disturbance.
Also constant and temporary amnesia is defined. So-called temporary amnesia is a state at which the patient has a gradual recovery of memoirs — at first the most remote episodes, later — fresher return. At continuous loss of memory of recovery of memoirs does not occur.
Saying about how loss of memory in each case is called, it is necessary to know how this illness is classified. Depending on that, how exactly there is a loss of memoirs, retardirovanny, antegrade, retrograde, anteretrogradny amnesia is defined.
At retardirovanny amnesia of people initially faints, and only after that through a certain span there is amnesia. At antegrade amnesia of the patient for some time loses memory right after to it the consciousness returns. Respectively, at anteretrogradny amnesia two described types of loss of memory are combined. If retrograde amnesia is diagnosed for the person, then symptoms of loss of memory are characterized by disturbance of memory of those events which took place just before the beginning of an attack or before an injury (the memory loss reason). Short-term loss of memory of this type happens at electroconvulsive therapy.
At an assessment of development of amnesia it is allocated the progressing, stationary and regressing types. At the progressing amnesia memory disappears gradually of the present to past events. In that case the person can remember what occurred in his childhood or in youth, also his professional skills do not disappear. Nevertheless, he cannot remember new vital events, is periodically confused. Sometimes according to such scheme there is a loss of memory at elderly people. At development of stationary amnesia permanent loss of memory on certain events is noted. This type of amnesia can be noted if the person had a stroke or some other diseases. At the regressing amnesia there is a short-term loss of memory, the memoirs later lost are recovered. Treatment of loss of memory is made only after the doctor established its reasons and type.
There are also other types of amnesia connected with certain events in human life or with development of some diseases. Fixating amnesia is the heaviest manifestation of a syndrome of Korsakov arising owing to improper feeding or an alcohol abuse. Fixating amnesia is characterized by impossibility to remember those events which take place in the present, but at the same time memory on the past remains more or less not broken.
The so-called dissociative fugue can develop if the person somewhere suddenly leaves then he suddenly loses memory of the biography and of everything that is connected with it.
The dissociated amnesia is a state at which the person forgets the important facts which concern private life, but at the same time completely keeps all the abilities, skills. As a rule, similar occurs at serious stressful situations and mental injuries.
Traumatic amnesia is an effect of different injuries of the head, and its duration depends on that how heavy was damage. Children's amnesia (infantile amnesia) is characterized by inability to remember events from virginity. Anyway it is present practically at each person.
Posthypnotic amnesia is connected with the fact that the person does not have memories of what happens to him at hypnotic influence.
If at the patient the memory loss connected with organism intoxication is noted, then in his memory there are no events which were connected with the poisoning period. At mental illnesses hysterical amnesia at which of memory of the person events, unpleasant for it, disappear can be noted.
Sometimes amnesia is shown separately, but at some diseases can develop in parallel with apraxia, aphasia, agnosia.
Why amnesia is shown?
The reasons of amnesia can be the most different. First of all, symptoms of amnesia are observed at people who have mental diseases, epilepsy, tumors, brain diseases. The reasons of temporary amnesia — the serious emotional shock connected with a serious stress and also a head injury, a stroke.
Besides, diseases of infectious and inflammatory character, organism intoxication, migraine, very heavy overfatigue, disturbances of blood circulation in a brain connected with atherosclerosis of arteries of a brain can provoke different forms of amnesia.
Short-term amnesia at which memory blackouts are temporary only is sometimes noted. Similar occurs at abuse of alcohol, reception of some medicines. So-called memory blackouts often accompany attacks at epilepsy.
Quite often the alcoholism at which the person remembers everything that was in the past is the reason of dysmnesias, but cannot recreate the current events. In certain cases real events in memory of the person are substituted for nonexistent events.
One more reason of manifestation of disturbances of memory — dementia. At this disease which is characteristic of elderly people the organic disease of a brain develops. The main symptom of a dysmnesia are at Alzheimer's disease. In this case at the person the ecmnesia, that is disturbances of memory of the current events is noted. But in development of dementia also the ecmnesia can develop retrograde.
If the person has a concussion of the brain, then, as a rule, it develops retrograde amnesia. As it was noted above, retrograde amnesia is characterized by disturbance of memory of past events. Later memory at the patient is recovered.
Thus, development of amnesia in the person is connected or with impact on a brain which leads to its damage, or with disturbances of psychological character.
How to cure amnesia?
At each of the listed diseases the separate clinical picture therefore carrying out careful diagnosis is required is noted. At manifestations of memory blackouts each person has to pass surely full inspection at specialists — the narcologist and the psychiatrist. If there is such need, other inspections at doctors of other profile are appointed. Both tool researches, and the special tests allowing to estimate functions of memory and to define amnesia type are carried out.
Treatment of amnesia provides, first of all, therapeutic impact on a basic disease of the person. In the course of such therapy antioxidants, neuroprotectors, glycine, drugs as a part of which there is a ginko-biloba are applied. Also retrograde amnesia and other types of loss of memory provide reception of vitamins of group B, carrying out neuropsychological rehabilitation. The course of treatment piracetam allows to activate cholinergic processes in a brain. Also other drugs which exact dosage is defined only by the attending physician are used. If alcoholic amnesia is diagnosed for the patient, then first of all full refusal of alcohol intake and treatment of alcoholism is important.
At loss of memory gipnosuggestivny therapy also practices in modern medicine. Sessions of hypnosis allow patients to recover those facts which were lost. Also different techniques of psychotherapy which are urged to recover memory at the patient are applied.
Not to allow memory disturbances, doctors recommend to follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle, to exclude an alcohol abuse, not to practice reception of medicines without appointment of the doctor. Not to exchange physical activity and good nutrition is important. For support of memory the thicket needs to include walnuts, spinach, dark chocolate, pumpkin sunflower seeds, fruit, vegetables, fish of fat grades, beef, dairy products in a diet.
It is regularly very important to train memory, and, it needs to be done even at advanced age. As a rule, good memory is noted at those people whose work or daily occupations are connected with need to intensify memory and attention.