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Autoimmune diseases are diseases of the person which are shown as an effect of too high activity of immune system of an organism concerning its own cells. The immune system perceives the fabrics as alien elements and begins to damage them. It is also accepted to call such diseases system as there is a defeat of a certain system of an organism in general, and all organism sometimes is surprised.
For modern physicians of the reason and the mechanism of manifestation of such processes remains obscure. So, there is an opinion on what can provoke autoimmune diseases both a stress, and injuries, and any infections, and overcooling.
Among diseases which belong to this group of illnesses it should be noted a pseudorheumatism, a number of autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland. The mechanism of development of a diabetes mellitus of the first type, multiple sclerosis, a system lupus erythematosus is also autoimmune. There are also some syndromes which have the autoimmune nature.
Reasons of autoimmune diseases
The immune system of the person most intensively ripens, since his birth and to fifteen-year age. In the course of maturing of a cell receive ability afterwards to distinguish some proteins of an alien origin that becomes a basis for fight against different infections.
There is also a part of lymphocytes which perceive proteins of own organism as alien. However at an organism normality the immune system makes rigid control over such cells therefore they carry out function of destruction of sick or defective cells.
But under certain conditions in a human body control over such cells can be lost, and as a result they begin to work more actively, destroying already normal, full-fledged cells. Thus, there is a development of an autoimmune disease.
There are no exact data on origins of autoimmune diseases today. However researches of specialists allow to subdivide all reasons on internal and external.
As the external reasons of development of diseases of this kind impact on an organism of causative agents of infectious diseases, and also a number of physical impacts is defined (radiation, ultraviolet radiation, etc.). If owing to the specified reasons there is a defeat of a certain fabric in an organism, sometimes the immune system perceives the changed molecules as alien elements. As a result she attacks the struck body, chronic inflammatory process develops, and fabrics are damaged even stronger.
One more external reason of development of autoimmune diseases is a development of a cross immunity. This phenomenon takes place if the contagium is similar to own cells. As a result immunity of the person influences also on pathogenic microorganisms, and own cells, striking them.
As the internal reasons define mutations of gene character which are hereditary. Some mutations are capable to change an antigenic structure of any fabrics or body. As a result lymphocytes cannot distinguish them as own any more. It is accepted to call autoimmune diseases of this kind organospetsifichesky. In this case there is an inheritance of a certain illness, that is from generation to generation there is a defeat of a certain body or system.
Owing to other mutations balancing of immune system what there is no due control of autoagressivny lymphocytes is broken. If under such circumstances the human body is influenced by a certain stimulating factors, then display of an organonespetsifichesky autoimmune disease which will affect a number of systems and bodies as a result is possible.
There are no exact data and on the mechanism of development of diseases of this kind today. According to the general definition, developing of autoimmune diseases provokes disturbance of the general of function of immune system or its some components. There is an opinion that directly adverse factors cannot provoke the beginning of an autoimmune disease. Such factors only increase risk of development of diseases at those who have hereditary tendency to such pathology.
Rather seldom in medical practice classical autoimmune diseases are diagnosed. Autoimmune complications of other illnesses are much more often shown. In the course of progressing of some diseases in fabrics the structure because of what they get properties of alien elements partially changes. In this case autoimmune reactions are directed to healthy fabrics. For example, emergence of autoimmune reactions owing to a myocardial infarction, burns, viral diseases, injuries is possible. Sometimes, that tissues of an eye or a small egg owing to inflammations are exposed to autoimmune attack.
Sometimes attack of immune system goes to healthy fabrics because alien antigen joins them. It is possible, for example, at a viral hepatitis of V. Sushchestvuyet one more mechanism of development of autoimmune reactions in healthy bodies and fabrics: this development in them allergic reactions.
The majority of autoimmune diseases are chronic illnesses which develop with alternation of aggravations and the periods of remissions. In most cases chronic autoimmune diseases provoke serious negative changes in functions of bodies that as a result conducts to an invalidism of the person.
Diagnosis of autoimmune diseases
In the course of diagnosis of autoimmune diseases of the most important point definition of an immune factor which provokes damage of fabrics and human organs is. For the majority of autoimmune diseases such factors are defined. In each case different immunological laboratory methods of research are applied to definition of a necessary marker.
Besides, in the course of establishment of the diagnosis the doctor surely considers all information on clinical development of a disease, and also its symptoms which are defined during survey and poll of the patient.
Treatment of autoimmune diseases
Today thanks to continuous researches of specialists treatment of autoimmune diseases is carried out successfully. At prescription of medicines the doctor considers the fact that immunity of the person is the main factor which negatively influences bodies and systems. Therefore nature of therapy at autoimmune diseases is immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory.
Drugs immunosuppressors influence functioning of immune system depressing. This group of drugs includes cytostatics, antimetabolites, corticosteroid hormones, and also some antibiotics, etc. After reception of such drugs function of immune system is considerably oppressed, and process of an inflammation stops.
However at treatment of diseases by means of the specified drugs it is necessary to consider surely and that they provoke emergence of side reactions. Such drugs do not influence locally: their action extends to a human body in general.
Owing to their reception a hemopoiesis can be oppressed, be surprised internals, the organism becomes more susceptible to infections. After reception of some medicines from this group there is a process oppression cell fission that can provoke an intensive hair loss. If the patient passes treatment by means of hormonal drugs, then emergence of a syndrome of Kushinga of which the high arterial pressure, obesity, a gynecomastia at men is characteristic can become a side effect. Therefore treatment by such drugs is carried out only after full specification of the diagnosis and under control of the experienced doctor.
The purpose of use of immunomodulatory drugs is achievement of balance between different components of immune system. Drugs of this type are appointed at treatment immunodepressants as means for prevention of infectious complications.
Immunomodulatory medicines are drugs which have mainly natural origin. Such drugs contain biologically active agents which promote recovery of balance between different types of lymphocytes. The most often applied immunomodulators are drug alfetin, and also drugs of a rhodiola pink, a purple cone-flower purple, ginseng extract.
Also in complex therapy of autoimmune diseases specially developed and balanced complexes of minerals and vitamins are applied.
Today active developments of essentially new techniques of treatment of autoimmune diseases are conducted. One of perspective techniques the gene therapy – the method directed to replacement of a defective gene in an organism is considered. But the similar way of treatment is only at a development stage.
Also development of drugs which basis are antibodies which will be able to resist to the attacks of immune system directed to own fabrics is conducted.
Autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland
Today autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland subdivide into two look. In the first case there is an excess process of secretion of hormones of a thyroid gland. The bazedova an illness belongs to this type. At other kind of such diseases there is lowering of synthesis of hormones. In this case it is about Hashimoto's illness or a myxedema.
In the course of functioning of a thyroid gland in a human body there is a thyroxine synthesis. This hormone is very important for harmonious functioning of an organism in general – he takes part in a number of metabolic processes, and also is involved in providing a normal muscle work, a brain, in growth of bones.
Autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland become the basic reason promoting development in an organism of an autoimmune hypothyroidism.
The autoimmune thyroiditis is the most widespread type of thyroidites. Specialists allocate two forms of this illness: atrophic thyroiditis and hypertrophic thyroiditis (so-called Hashimoto's disease).
Autoimmune thyroidites are characterized by existence of both qualitative, and quantitative deficit of T lymphocytes. Symptoms of an autoimmune thyroiditis are shown adenoid infiltratsiy tissue of a thyroid gland. Such state is shown as a result of influence of factors of autoimmune character.
The autoimmune thyroiditis develops at people who have hereditary tendency to this disease. At the same time it is shown under the influence of a number of external factors. An effect of such changes in a thyroid gland is the subsequent emergence of a secondary autoimmune hypothyroidism.
At a hypertrophic form of a disease symptoms of an autoimmune thyroiditis are shown by total magnification of a thyroid gland. This increase can be defined as in the course of a palpation, and visually. It will be very frequent the diagnosis of patients with similar pathology a nodal craw.
At an atrophic form of an autoimmune thyroiditis the clinical picture of a hypothyroidism most often takes place. A net result of an autoimmune thyroiditis is the autoimmune hypothyroidism at which cells of a thyroid gland are absent in general. Symptoms of a hyperthyroidism is trembling of fingers on hands, strong perspiration, the strengthened heart beat, increase of arterial pressure. But development of an autoimmune hypothyroidism happens several years later after the beginning of a thyroiditis.
Cases of course of a thyroiditis without certain signs are sometimes observed. But nevertheless in most cases precursory symptoms of such state often is a certain discomfort in a thyroid gland. In the course of swallowing of the patient can constantly feel a lump in a throat, feeling of pressure. During a palpation the thyroid gland can hurt a little.
The subsequent clinical symptoms of an autoimmune thyroiditis at the person are shown by coarsening of features, bradycardia, emergence of excess weight. At the patient the voice timbre changes, memory and the speech become less accurate, in the course of exercise stresses short wind develops. The condition of skin also changes: it is thickened, observed dryness of integuments, skin discoloration. Women note disturbance of a monthly cycle, against an autoimmune thyroiditis infertility often develops. Despite so wide range of symptoms of an illness, it is always difficult to diagnose it practically. In the course of establishment of the diagnosis the palpation of a thyroid gland, careful survey of area of a neck is often applied. It is also important to reveal the level of hormones of a thyroid gland and to define antibodies in blood. at emergency ultrasonography of a thyroid gland is carried out.
Treatment of an autoimmune thyroiditis is, as a rule, carried out by means of conservative therapy which provides treatment of different disturbances of functions of a thyroid gland. In especially hard cases treatment of autoimmune Thyreoidinum is carried out by a surgical way by means of a thyroidectomy method.
If at the patient the hypothyroidism is shown, treatment is made by means of replacement therapy for what tiroidny drugs of hormones of a thyroid gland are used.
The reasons for which at the person autoimmune hepatitis develops finally are not known till today. There is an opinion that autoimmune processes in a liver of the patient provoke different viruses, for example, viruses of hepatitises of various groups, a cytomegalovirus, a herpes virus. Autoimmune hepatitis most often affects girls and young women, at men and elderly women the illness occurs much less often.
It is considered to be that in development at sick autoimmune hepatitis unresponsiveness of a liver is broken. That is in a liver there is a formation of autoantibodies to some parts of cells of a liver.
Autoimuny hepatitis has the progressing character, at the same time palindromias occur very often. The patient to this disease has very severe damage of a liver. Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis is jaundice, increase of body temperature, pain in a liver. There is an emergence of hemorrhages on integuments. Such hemorrhages can be both small, and rather large. Also in the course of diagnosis of a disease doctors find the increased liver and a spleen.
In the course of progressing of a disease also changes which concern other bodies are observed. Patients have an increase in lymph nodes, pain in joints is shown. Later the expressed damage of a joint at which there is its hypostasis can develop. Manifestation of rashes, a focal scleroderma, psoriasis is also possible. The patient can suffer from muscle pains, sometimes there is a damage of kidneys, hearts, development of myocarditis.
During diagnosis of an illness blood test in which increase of liver enzymes, too high level of bilirubin, increase in a thymol turbidity test, disturbance of maintenance of protein fractions takes place is carried out. Also the analysis reveals changes which are characteristic of inflammations. However markers of a viral hepatitis do not find.
In the course of treatment of this illness corticosteroid hormones are used. At the first stage of therapy very high doses of such drugs are appointed. Later, for several years, it is necessary to accept maintenance doses of such drugs.