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Depigmentation of skin
Depigmentation of skin is a change of pigmentation of an integument of the person which is connected or with the reduced quantity of a pigment, or with its total absence.
How the skin depigmentation is shown?
If in skin the reduced quantity of a pigment, is diagnosed for the patient a hypochromia. If it is absent at all, so it is about an achromia. At a depigmentation in skin of the person there are certain morfokhimichesky changes. As a result, the shortcoming or lack of melanin – a pigment which cells produce melanocytes is noted. The majority of such cells is located in an integument. However they are also in hair, an iris of the eye of eyes, in an inner ear.
White spots on face skin and bodies arise in connection with certain pathological processes in an organism. Such phenomenon can be full (on a certain body part skin absolutely white) or partial (skin of lighter shade alternates with sites of a normal shade).
Depending on loss of melanin the resistant and temporary depigmentation is defined. At a resistant form of a disease of function of melanocytes are not recovered.
Allocate also inborn and acquired form of this illness. An inborn depigmentation, in particular, is albinism. Loss of a xanthopathy in this case happens as in an organism completely there is no enzyme a tyrosinase. As a result, synthesis of melanin is broken.
People with albinism possess very pale integument having a pinkish shade. Illuminate vessels, pupils have a red shade. At albinos very gentle skin, hair or white, or have a weak yellowish shade. Often at people with albinism squint, a photophobia is noted.
Such people are harmful influenced by an ultraviolet therefore under sun beams without protection they in general cannot be as the burn of integuments comes very quickly. Albinism happens total, incomplete, partial.
Example of a resistant form of a disease is vitiligo. If to consider a skin depigmentation photo at this disease, then it is obviously noticeable that the skin pigment is lost only on certain areas of an integument. As a rule, initially at vitiligo there are small spots which gradually increase and extend. This disease brings to the person serious cosmetic discomfort. Most often the first spots arise on those body parts which reside under direct exposure to sunlight.
At vitiligo at the person the centers of a depigmentation of any sizes can be formed: the depigmentation of a nose, sites of the person, hands, legs, etc. is possible. The pigment is lost also in the hair growing on the decoloured sites therefore at vitiligo the depigmentation of hair can be noted. This illness affects people of any age, but develops at young women more often. Spots can increase to merge. At the same time there are no subjective feelings.
The hypro chromia is a state at which hemoglobin is insufficiently saturated with erythrocytes. Rather unusual found occurrence the hypochromia at the baby is considered. This state is more often it is diagnosed for girls. The hypochromia of blood is a characteristic sign of development of anemia. The reasons for which the hypochromia of erythrocytes and, as a result, anemia develops are connected with poisonings with metals, a thalassemia, and also with damage of erythrocytes. The insignificant, moderate hypochromia is shown against the lowered hemoglobin content in blood. The expressed hypochromia which can be diagnosed easily if to make blood test on a hypochromia, causes in the patient a frequent headache, lack of appetite, frustration in work of the alimentary system, the general weakness. The person with such symptom has, as a rule, a pale skin.
The hypochromia in blood test is defined by research of level of content in peripheral blood of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, studying of a color indicator.
Why the skin depigmentation is shown?
The reasons of a depigmentation of skin are connected with lack of a pigment in a certain site of an integument or in skin in general. This phenomenon is caused by influence of certain factors. So, albinism is a hereditary achromia which is connected with genetically transferred mutation.
The acquired achromia of primary type (vitiligo) arises without the visible reasons on those sites of skin where earlier pigmentation was normal. Vitiligo often develops at people with dysfunctions of hemadens, at those, had serious emotional injuries and shocks. It is considered to be that vitiligo can arise owing to autoimmune processes, and also against chronic diseases.
The secondary achromia is a consequence of pathological process which happens in an organism. For example, the shelled light spots on skin are observed at the people having psoriasis, a leprosy. The people having these diseases often note that they had round decoloured spots. Their emergence happens at active progressing of diseases.
Besides, the reasons of a depigmentation can be connected with some postponed diseases. Discoloration of integuments is often noted on places which were struck with herpeses, seborrheal eczema, a streptoderma, other skin infectious diseases. However in this case treatment of white spots on skin is not required as over time they gradually disappear independently. Permanent loss of a pigment is noted only at seborrheal eczema.
The pigment is lost also owing to inflammatory processes on integuments, after burns, injuries. Sometimes such side effect is observed also at prolonged topical treatment by drugs with glucocorticoid hormones.
The hypochromia develops owing to severe or chronic bleedings, at iron absorption disturbance, at the increased need of an organism for iron (feeding by a breast, pregnancy), at defective food with low protein content.
How to get rid of a skin depigmentation?
Treatment of a depigmentation of skin is appointed depending on the disease and the reasons which provoked it. In certain cases the depigmentation manages to be cured if effective therapy of a basic disease is carried out.
However at patients with albinism and vitiligo effective treatment of white spots on a body, as a rule, is impossible. Therefore, specialists carry out a symptomatic treatment, and also pay special attention to implementation of measures of prevention of burns which such patients can receive under direct beams of the sun.
Doctors can appoint the treatment complex directed to delay of progress of a depigmentation. Also procedures which allow to bring closer a skin shade with the lost pigmentation to a former shade are carried out. For example, at vitiligo skin is initially greased with iodic tincture then it is irradiated with an ultraviolet in the doses which are accurately established by the doctor.
It is necessary to consider also that development of vitiligo is most often noted at those people who have some disturbances in functions of immune system. Therefore, at treatment also this moment is surely considered. Therefore dermatologists strongly recommend to address the dermatologist at once after the person are noted emergence of the first white spots on a body. If at the patient with vitiligo more than 80% of a body surface are struck, and the repigmentation is impossible, then the depigmentation can be carried out to smooth a difference of shades of an integument. In that case the laser depigmentation is often appointed. However it is necessary to consider that such procedure leads to the constant increased photosensitivity.
There are no effective techniques of treatment of albinism today and. However the doctor has to pay special attention to a condition of eyes of such patient and provide correction of sight and muscles of eyes if at the person squint developed. People with albinism need to show consideration very much for own sight, and also to protect skin from influence of sunshine, using qualitative protective cosmetics. People with albinism have to visit regularly the neurologist, the dermatologist, the ophthalmologist. If the child's birth is planned, it is necessary to pass genetic consultation as albinism is descended.
Treatment of a hypochromia of erythrocytes is carried out by means of long therapy by ferriferous drugs. To fill shortage of iron, not less than three weeks of regular reception of such medicines are required. It is necessary to enrich the child's diet with products with the high content of vitamin C, meat dishes. If disturbance of absorption of iron in intestines is diagnosed, such drugs are administered to the patient intramusculary.