Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes represent red blood cells which main function aklyuchatsya in transportation of carbon dioxide to lungs from fabrics, and also oxygen to fabrics from lungs, besides, they contain hemoglobin. Erythrocytes of the person have red coloring which is reached at the expense of the hemoglobin making the most part of a cell. Life expectancy of these blood cells lasts no more than 120 days.

Development of erythrocytes results from process of an erythrogenesis in red marrow. This process is included by many stage of preobrazovaniyastvolovy cells in erythrocytes: the megaloblast, then an erythroblast, a normocyte is at first formed. When the last loses a kernel, the predecessor of an erythrocyte – a reticulocyte is formed. It, in turn, from red marrow gets into a blood channel, and in several hours the erythrocyte is formed.

Main functions of erythrocytes:

  • The most important function of erythrocytes is respiratory which consists in transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide, it is provided for the account with a hemoglobin content
  • Due to transportation of various amino acids to fabrics from digestive organs nutritious function is carried out.
  • Besides, erythrocytes participate in enzymatic reactions thanks to the fact that at their surface there are enzymes, enzymatic function is so provided.
  • Erythrocytes can collect antigens and toxins on the surface, to participate in immune and autoimmune responses
  • Regulatory function of these blood cells is provided due to maintenance with erythrocytes of acid-base balance.

Norm

The standard of the contents of erythrocytes in blood various for each age, the greatest indicator it reaches during the first birthdays.

For the adult healthy man the norm makes from 4 to 5,5 * 1012/l, for women the indicator is a little lower – from 3,5 to 5 * 1012/l.

The increased and lowered concentration

The lowered concentration of erythrocytes is one of the main indicators of anemia which can be caused by deficit of folic acid (B9 vitamin), B12 vitamin, hemolysis, blood loss. Besides, the lowered concentration happens in case of a hydremia which can arise because of introduction of intravenously large amount of liquid, and also at outflow of liquid from fabrics in a blood channel.

Increase in concentration of erythrocytes in blood can be observed at hyperglobulias and an erythremia. Increase in amount of hemoglobin at a hypoxia is the cornerstone of a physiological hyperglobulia for a long time, it is connected about need of increase in receipt in an oxygen organism. The pathological hyperglobulia develops in the presence of diseases which indirectly or directly lead to pathological stimulation of the increased production of erythropoetin therefore there is an increase and quantities of erythrocytes. Can lead hematomas to such disease, transplantation of a kidney, a stenosis of renal arteries, a chronic hemodialysis, a nephrotic syndrome, a hydronephrosis, the cysts of kidneys masculinizing tumors of ovaries, cysts and adenomas of a hypophysis, a tumor of brain and cortical layers of adrenal glands, a cerebellum hemangioblastoma, a cancer of kidneys, etc. At a secondary relative hyperglobulia increase of concentration of erythrocytes is relative, that is their the general the quantity does not change, and the ratio to blood volume because of haemo concentration only increases, thus, increase in a hematocrit of blood takes place. The erythremia, or primary hyperglobulia, results from a tumor of a polypeptide stem cell because of what the strengthened cell fission develops. Given by a disease usually is followed by a poliferation and other sprouts of a hemopoiesis therefore increase as well thrombocytes, leukocytes is found out that leads to a thrombocytosis and a leukocytosis.

Section: E