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March 20, 2012
The hallucination is an image which arises in consciousness and does not correspond to an external irritant. The strong fatigue, some mental diseases, the use of certain psychotropic substances and hallucinogens can be an origin of hallucinations. For the first time this term was put into practice at the beginning of the 19th century.
Types of hallucinations
Hallucinations happen the following versions:
- False (pseudohallucinations)
- Gipnopompichesky and gipnagogichesky
- Bonnet's hallucinations
Associated are hallucinations which are characterized by emergence of the images which are consecutive and logical. The voice which declares the subsequent to it visual hallucinations can be an example of such hallucinations.
True hallucinations. The imaginary perceived phenomenon or object are in psychological objective space. Unlike representations and illusions, according to the standard opinion, such hallucinations cannot arise at mentally healthy people. True hallucinations, in turn, are divided into the following: acoustical (acoustic), visual, olfactory, tactile, visceral (somatic), flavoring, vestibular, proprioceptive (motor), and also complex (the hallucinations relating to one object, but in side-altars of different feelings). For visceral hallucinations concreteness – the instruction on presence of living beings, specific objects which are under his skin, in internals, feeling of electric current on a body is inherent.
Hallucinations when in the presence of a real irritant on any analyzer (flavoring, acoustical, etc.) there is a reaction in other analyzer are called reflex.
Verbal hallucinations which differ in the ruling, mandative tone are imperative. Often such voices "order" to make actions which can be dangerous to people around and the most sick. Such hallucinations can often be observed at gomitsidny and suicide behavior.
The perceived phenomena and objects which are in illusory space belong to false hallucinations. They can be symptoms of schizophrenia, a syndrome of mental automatism and other diseases. The perception of false hallucinations differs from all others – they are not perceived by usual bodies, feelings are provided with "internal", "spiritual" hearing or sight.
Ekstrakampinnye represent a kind of hallucinations which go beyond "the sensitive field" of any analyzer, that is visual hallucinations, for example, are perceived by the person as if behind themselves.
Functional hallucinations take place when the phenomenon or a subject are perceived against acting, real-life on the same analyzer (for example, in murmur of water and rustle of foliage of people can hear the speech). Such hallucinations differ from true in existence of a real irritant which makes impact on the analyzer, and also from illusions at which the perception of a real irritant is not characteristic at all. At functional hallucinations imaginary and real objects coexist on an equal basis. It is also possible to carry "a visual echo", or a phenomenon of traces to them — disturbance of perception when moving objects look a number of discrete images. Such images can arise even when the person is mentally completely healthy, but is strongly overstrained.
Elementary, or hallucinations with incomplete concreteness, are the auditory or visual hallucinations arising in the form of separate images, sounds, etc.
Gipnagogichesky and gipnopompichesky hallucinations arise when the person is on border of a dream and bodrovstvovaniye: the first when awakening, the second – when backfilling.
Visual hallucinations which take place in the dropped-out part of a field of vision are called hemianoptic. They do not treat true hallucinations.
Bonnet's hallucinations arise when function of any analyzer absolutely is absent or is sharply reduced, that is at deafs people begin to hear sounds, and blind people – to see any visual images. Such type of hallucinations received this name after Charles Bonnet described the fact of their existence at the grandfather sick with a cataract.