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Change of the speech
The organs of articulation of the person consist of several levels. Initially forming of the speech happens in the speech center which is in a temporal share of a dominant parencephalon. Further forming of the speech is defined by those think-tanks which are responsible for autokinesias. Then excitement to muscles of a throat, language, a throat, lips, cheeks is transmitted through nerve fibrils. There is a movement of muscles which together with an air flow in upper respiratory tracts defines final forming of the speech of the person.
How changes of the speech are shown?
Owing to the most different diseases change of the speech can happen in connection with failures any of stages of forming of the speech. Depending on that how serious was defeat, intensity of disturbances of the speech is shown.
Irrespective of how serious violation of the speech is noted at the person, he needs to consult urgently with the doctor. The shown disturbances depend on features and the level of defeat.
Change of the speech which happens owing to deviations in functioning of a nervous system is called aphasia. At the same time the person shows full misunderstanding of both grammatical, and lexical structure of language. Staying in consciousness, he cannot correctly build the phrases and does not understand what he is told. As a rule, such disturbance of the speech is connected with disturbances in a cerebral cortex which are connected with injuries, inflammations, tumors, vascular pathologies, and also with atrophic processes. Aphasia is sometimes observed also at some mental diseases.
At a dysarthtia at the person the articulation is broken, he cannot fully speak as lips and the language "do not obey". As a result, in the speech there is no clearness, definiteness, the patient talks as if at him something filled a mouth. The dysarthtia is connected with disturbances of a neuromuscular transmission, also in this case can there be a speech about disturbances of functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Such disturbance is characteristic both of adults, and of children.
The dysphonia is a change of the speech which is characterized by manifestation of hoarseness and an osiplost of the speech. The mutism is defined at the person if the speech at it is absent completely.
The diagnosis "alalia" is established to the child if the speech at it is absent completely. Such pathology is connected with damages of speech zones to a cerebral cortex which happen during pre-natal fetation. The alalia is approximately twice more often observed at boys. This disturbance is connected both with chronic diseases of mother, and with disturbances of a course of pregnancy, injuries, poisonings, etc. At severe forms of an alalia the speech completely is absent, at lungs — is observed partially.
In all cases precisely to define features of disturbance of the speech and only the doctor can establish the correct diagnosis.
Why changes of the speech are shown?
All changes of the speech which are observed at the person are connected with a certain illness. Aphasia is a consequence of craniocereberal injuries, strokes, serious infectious defeats, poisonings. Such disturbance of the speech is often observed at people with Alzheimer's disease, Peak.
The dysarthtia is a consequence of damage of zadnelobny and subcrustal sites of a brain. The dysarthtia is often observed at the people who endured a stroke. Change of the speech of this kind is characteristic of Kiari's anomaly, vascular aneurism, a polymiositis, a syndrome of Giyena-Barry, a myasthenia, etc. At the listed diseases also the dysphonia sometimes is noted. However the dysphonia is quite often observed also at the people having diseases of a throat, throat, an oral cavity. Such diseases are defined by the otolaryngologist therefore at an osiplost and hoarseness first of all it is necessary to visit this specialist.
Mutism — the symptom characteristic of mental diseases. The speech can be absent completely at people with schizophrenia, hysteria, severe forms of a depression. Sometimes the mutism accompanies epilepsy. In this case lack of the speech is connected with failures in work of the central nervous system. Such change of the speech quite often is result of serious nervous breakdowns, injuries of mental character. So, the mutism can develop at the person owing to serious disasters, losses of close people and other shocks.
Failures in speech development in the child depend on that, such defeats, and also from age are how serious. Changes of the speech can be connected with the injuries received in the course of childbirth or with injuries which the child got later. Often physically the child develops normally, but at the same time he shows an alalia, that is his speech remains undeveloped.
Except the listed reasons of change of the speech of different type arise at patients with Parkinson's illness, a hyperkinetic dysarthtia (an osiplost, disturbance of an articulation), Turett's syndrome, a diabetes mellitus, alcoholism. Disturbances of the speech arise also owing to defeat of motor neurons, damage of a trifacial, a facial nerve, a vagus nerve, a hypoglossal nerve.
How to get rid of changes of the speech?
Treatment of the shown changes of the speech is carried out depending on that disease which provoked manifestation of this symptom. Therefore, it is initially important to carry out careful diagnosis and to define the nature of such disturbances. Pharmacological, logopedic, surgical, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment of such pathologies practice in modern medicine. In most cases complex therapy practices.
Very careful leaving is necessary for people for whom the mutism is diagnosed. It is important to try constantly "get to talking" the person, to relieve him of dumbness and deafness. For this purpose it is possible to try to apply the most different gestures, a mimicry, to write words or to draw. What to do in a specific case, the doctor will prompt. The doctor can appoint treatment of a mutism using medicines according to a certain scheme.
Treatment of children at whom changes of the speech are observed is carried out by the corresponding specialists, depending on the reasons of a problem with the speech. At an arrest of development of the speech it is necessary to address the children's psychologist. However often treatment at the specialist logopedist allows to correct problems with the speech. Long treatment is necessary for those children at whom the changes of the speech connected with neurologic problems are noted. Sometimes disturbances disappear with age. But at any disturbances of the speech at the child parents shall pay attention to it and consult with the specialist urgently.