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Fever is a protective and adaptive mechanism of a human body which develops as reaction to influence of pathogenic irritants. Sometimes fever is shown also at noninfectious illnesses. So the organism reacts to effect of endotoxins, endogenous pyrogens which are released when leukocytes collapse, there is a septic inflammatory process, and also disbolism and autoimmune processes are observed.
How fever is shown?
Processes of thermal control in a human body are caused by the center of thermal control which is located in a hypothalamus of the person. These processes can be broken by exogenous or internal causes. Sometimes temperature increases in case of disturbance of processes of heat production and a thermolysis and at a normality of the center of thermal control.
The main displays of fever is the increased body temperature. If the normal body temperature taken in an armpit has to make 36,0-36,9, then at fever these indicators raise. At fever of people feels a fever, a headache, weakness, a strong ache in muscles.
Classification of fevers depending on different factors practices. Infectious and noninfectious fever is defined with the reason of development of this state.
Taking into account the level of fervescence at the patient subfebrile fever (body temperature of 37-37,9 °C), febrile fever (body temperature of 38-38,9 °C), pyrectic or high fever (body temperature of 39-40,9 °C) and hyperpyrexial or excessive fever differs (body temperature of 41 °C and more).
Depending on duration of this state acute, subacute and chronic fever differs.
It agrees with an assessment of indicators of body temperature and time when they are shown, the constant, aperient, alternating, garapata, wavy, wrong, perverted, gektichesky disease is defined. All types of fever have features of a current. For example, gektichesky fever develops at strong fluctuations of body temperature. The fevers given a look are shown at development of some diseases.
A number of the diseases connected with fever and the accompanying symptoms is defined.
Types of fevers
The Crimean hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease which develops owing to influence of the activator given by mites. The Crimean fever was for the first time diagnosed in the Crimea. Symptoms of this disease were found in 1944. Its activator — RNA-viruliferous, getting to an organism through skin when the person is bitten by a tick.
Symptoms of hemorrhagic fever are shown sharply: sharply body temperature indicators grow, intoxication, and also a hemorrhagic syndrome (high level of bleeding) is noted. Vomiting can disturb the patient, in an initial stage noticeable face reddening is observed. In 2-6 days the hemorrhagic syndrome which is characterized by emergence of hemorrhagic rash on shoulders, legs, hands is observed.
If hemorrhagic fever with a renal syndrome develops, then the acute beginning of fever is combined with symptoms of intoxication and serious damage of kidneys. As a result, hemorrhagic renal fever leads to damage of kidneys and a liver failure. Bleeding of gums, nasal bleedings is noted, the person can faint. The viral diseases connected with a hemorrhagic syndrome are dangerous also that at the person bleedings in a stomach and intestines can develop. Development of complications (sepsis, a fluid lungs, pneumonia) and the wrong treatment can lead to a lethal outcome. Therefore prevention of infection is important: right after a sting of a tick it is necessary to address the specialist. Hemorrhagic Far East fever — the serious disease demanding urgent treatment.
Long fever of not clear genesis can be diagnosed if high temperature of a body (higher than 38 degrees) keeps at the patient more than two weeks, and at the same time the reasons of such phenomenon remain unspecified. At the same time comprehensive examination was conducted and all standards of diagnosis are considered. Very important point is differential diagnosis of fever of not clear genesis as sometimes this diagnosis can mistakenly be established. According to some specialists, this type of fever the infection, development of a malignant tumor, system diseases of connecting fabric is the cornerstone. Approximately in 20% of cases the reason of this type of fever, both at children, and at adults remains not clear. Treatment of a disease is appointed depending on intensity of fever.
Catches yellow fever of people from animals and people, activator carriers — mosquitoes. The first symptoms of yellow fever are shown approximately in 3-6 days after a mosquito sting. Beginning of yellow fever acute: indicators of body temperature raise to 40 degrees, the severe headache and a joint pain, a back, legs develops. There is also a hemorrhagic component: strongly the face of the patient reddens and swells. For the second day of people suffers from severe vomiting, nausea and thirst. Approximately for the fifth day there comes the remission period when the person begins to feel better. But such improvement continues only several hours. Further to the person it becomes worse as the trombogemorragichesky syndrome develops. Bleedings, a hematemesis are possible. The disease is fraught with development of serious complications — sepsis, pneumonia, myocarditis. Treatment of this disease consists in symptomatic therapy and prevention of further progressing of an illness. The main preventive measures is vaccination. The yellow fever inoculation is surely carried out if the person leaves to areas where it is noted local situations on this disease. More than 45 endemic countries in Latin America and Africa to which at departure it is necessary to do vaccination are defined (Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador, Kenya, etc.)
Fever of the Western Nile has the infectious nature. Transfer of the activator happens to stings of mosquitoes. The illness can arise as sporadic, and to be shown by serious flashes. In Russia such flash was recorded in 1962-64, after flash were observed in the CIS countries. Therefore prevention of fever of the Western Nile is very important both in the countries of Africa, and in Europe. The disease at the person begins sharply, with a fever and sharp rise in body temperature. The condition of fever can proceed at the person about two weeks. Symptoms of fever of Nile are expressed by perspiration, painful for the patient with intoxication. The person is exasperated by vomiting, head pain, drowsiness, etc. If in time diagnosis was carried out, and the symptomatic treatment facilitates a condition of the patient, then Nile fever successfully recovers.
Catches mouse fever of people owing to contact with rodents. Mice and rats do not get sick but only have this dangerous illness. The virus is allocated through kcal and urine of animals. The first symptoms of mouse fever at children and adults at an initial stage of a course of a disease are similar to the ORZ acute form. Before there are first symptoms of mouse fever at adults and children, from the moment of infection there pass from 7 to 46 days. What symptoms of mouse fever arise men and women at adult age, most often it is possible to learn for the 25th day. Initially symptoms at adults are renal and hemorrhagic manifestations, and at children the illness is shown gradually: body temperature increases, nausea, vomiting, migraine disturbs, sight worsens.
Infection leads to serious consequences: at the patient kidneys are surprised, there is serious intoxication of an organism, the trombogemorragichesky syndrome is noted. If there were first symptoms, and treatment was undertaken out of time, then damage of kidneys can lead to a lethal outcome as a result.
Mouse fever at children on an initial stage often is accepted to other disease as its signs on an initial stage can be accepted to severe cold or another an infectious disease. Even in the course of diagnosis the doctor can sometimes suspect that other types of fevers develop. The long increased temperature, pale skin and other signs, the general for some types of fevers, sometimes complicate diagnosis process.
Treatment takes place in conditions of a bed rest. Complex therapy includes reception of febrifugal, antiviral anesthetics. Also purpose of infusional therapy, glucocorticoids, a hemodialysis practices.
Acute rheumatic fever at children demonstrates that in an organism rheumatic pathology already develops. Acute rhematoid fever — very dangerous disease as it first of all affects cardiovascular system.
Classification of a disease is carried out on the course of a disease: acute rheumatic fever and repeated rheumatic fever differs. A cause of illness — influence of a beta and hemolitic streptococcus. This microorganism strikes connecting fabrics, it is promoted by some accessory factors. Acute rheumatic fever is shown owing to overcooling, bad food, failures in work of immune system, etc.
Symptoms of a disease is the general intoxication, the increased body temperature, joint pains, pallor of skin, irritability. After establishment of the correct diagnosis it is necessary to begin at once treatment as timely complex therapy defines success of treatment. Prevention of an illness consists in prevention of infection with a streptococcal infection.
Hay fever at children is more senior than five years and adults develops owing to allergic reaction of an organism to pollen of plants. Symptoms of hay fever are, first of all, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. At many people also some other signs — sleeplessness, fatigue, problems with appetite are observed. A disease men have more often, and also those at whom certain allergic reactions were already observed. Treatment of hay fever often is long and difficult process, especially if the purpose of the person — to get rid of this disease forever. The main hay fever medicine — antihistaminic drugs. Also vasoconstrictors, glucocorticosteroids are used. Also treatment by folk remedies practices. However often people have this illness for many years as by means of treatment it is possible to reduce symptoms only.
Symptoms of fever of the Dengue which is also called tropical fever are shown owing to organism infection with an infection which is transferred by one of species of mosquitoes. Symptoms of tropical fever are a severe pain in muscles, high rates of body temperature, diarrhea, cough, cold, conjunctivitis. The illness is curable, however tropical hemorrhagic fever which affects young people and children, causes acute bleedings therefore is very dangerous. Effects of this disease can be fatal. Treatment is carried out right after exact establishment of the diagnosis. Prevention consists in obligatory consultation at the specialist before a trip to such countries as Thailand, etc. Vaccination is carried out from other types of fever, the tropical fever inoculation at the moment does not practice.
Ebola and Marburg have fevers much the general as their activators are similar. These diseases are very dangerous, infectious and in most cases come to the end with a lethal outcome. Fever symptoms Ebola and Marburg are shown sharply at once, the person is disturbed by a fever, strong temperature increase, the general intoxication of an organism. After several days symptoms of damage of a gastrointestinal tract are noted, the consciousness is broken. Hemorrhagic fever Ebola, as well as hemorrhagic fever Marburg, can lead to death during the period from 4 to 27 day after infection. Treatment consists in maintenance of the vital functions, symptomatic therapy also practices. Fever of Marburg comes to the end with a lethal outcome in more than 80% of cases.
Hemorrhagic fever of Lass is characterized by development of a hemorrhagic syndrome, myocarditis, pneumonia, damage of kidneys. Lethality level in this case very high.
Family Mediterranean fever which also has the name a periodic illness is shown at the person by the repeating fever cases, inflammatory process of lungs, abdominal organs, joints. This disease meets at aboriginals of the Caucasus, the Mediterranean more often. The illness is diagnosed at children's age. Completely it is impossible to cure it therefore the symptomatic treatment practices.
The Marseilles fever is also characteristic of inhabitants of the regions stated above. High temperature of a body, rash, extremity pain and a headache, regional lymphadenitis, changes in work of cardiovascular system is characteristic of a disease. Treatment is carried out with use of antibiotics tetracyclines.
Spotty fever of the Rocky Mountains is shown by intoxication, rash, defeat of cardiovascular system, vessels and TsNS. The illness is widespread in North and South America. Disease carriers — rodents, some domestic animals. Treatment assumes administration of drugs of group of tetracycline or levomycetinum.
Except the described types of fever there is some other kinds of fevers which are life-threatening the person.
How to get rid of fever?
Treatment of fever is carried out on condition of a bed rest. It is important to establish the nature of temperature increase and to make the correct diagnosis. At the fever provoked by catarrhal diseases it is necessary to use febrifugal if temperature rises higher than 38 degrees. Children for decrease in temperature are recommended to give means on the basis of paracetamol.
After establishment of the diagnosis the doctor appoints treatment of a disease which was diagnosed. It is important not to tighten with the address to the specialist at states which cause alarm. For example, white fever at children is shown by an inadequate thermolysis therefore there is a danger of a serious overheat of an organism. In that case it is necessary to see a doctor immediately to establish the reasons of such state and to appoint treatment. It is required to consult with the doctor if at the child postimmunizatsionny fever, that is temperature increase after carrying out vaccination is observed.
If at the woman milk fever, that is reaction of an organism to emergence of milk in a breast at the feeding mother is shown, you should not wait for this state so far will pass by itself. It is fraught with complications therefore the doctor has to examine a breast surely.
Fever on lips (so are called in the people of rash of herpes) periodically develops at people who are infected with a herpes virus. How to cure herpes completely, doctors still do not know. Nevertheless, local means allow to reduce displays of an illness. Than to treat fever on a lip, it is worth asking the doctor.