And whether you know...
June 7, 2012
The medical statistics claims that the oncology of an eye meets today rather seldom. But nevertheless the quantity of cases of cancer of eye increases every year. If about ten flyings ago oncologists noted on average ten-twelve cases of oncological diseases of an eye on hundred thousand people, then now these indicators already increased. So, the world statistics demonstrates that the cancer of an eye occurs approximately at twenty people on hundred thousand of the population. One more unfavourable fact consists that people with a cancer of an eye ask for medical care only when the disease already passed into an incurable stage. Among total quantity of patients many cases of cancer of eye and at children are fixed.
Eye oncology reasons
Till today specialists cannot precisely establish all reasons which can provoke development of a malignant disease of an eye. Therefore, manifestation of such pathological process can take place practically at each person. Unfortunately, prevention of cancer of eye is impossible.
However it is noted that in some cases development of oncology of an eye happened at people who lived in conditions, extremely adverse from the point of view of ecology. Often in such cases hereditary tendency to development of oncology of an eye when the illness affects several generations of one family is noted. And, if one generation is born completely healthy, then in the following very serious violations can already be observed. In this case often it is about too contaminated water used by people. The salts of heavy metals provoking development of oncological diseases can be its part.
As one more reason which conducts to eye oncology it is considered to be influence of an ultraviolet. Therefore people who already were 30 years old should not be under direct sunshine throughout a long time. Use in summertime of sunglasses will be not superfluous, however their quality has to be very high. This illness sometimes arises against the developing HIV infection. Also the tumor in an eye is shown as metastasises as an effect of a malignant disease of other bodies.
Types of cancer of eye
The oncology of an eye can develop in its different parts. Most often cancer affects an eyelid. In this case diseases precede some illnesses which are a precancerous state. It is Bowen's epithelioma, a skin horn, a pigmental xeroderma, a senile keratosis. Much more rare, approximately in 5-9% of cases, an oncological new growth the conjunctiva is surprised. As a rule, progressing of a tumor generally happens in the field of a perilimbalny conjunctiva. Also relatively seldom cancer affects an iris of the eye, a choroid, a ciliary body, an eye orbit. At late stages of cancer of an orbit the illness can affect also next sine and a skull
At people after forty years cancer of the lacrimal gland, a sebaeous gland carcinoma can be shown. Pi development of the last type of an oncological disease of an eye development of metastasises can be both remote, and regional.
At sarcoma the malignant tumor develops mainly in an eye orbit. The main symptom at this type of cancer emergence of the exophthalmos which is quickly increasing throughout short time — several days or weeks is considered. The patient has disturbances in mobility of an eyeglobe, he is disturbed by feeling of a raspiraniye, and also pain. Hypostasis of a century can be shown, the optic nerve will gradually atrophy. There are several kinds of sarcoma of an eye among which Kaposha's angiosarcoma, a rhabdomyosarcoma, a fibrosarcoma, a chondrosarcoma is most often shown.
Very widespread oncological illness is the melanoma. This type of cancer is especially dangerous to the person as the illness progresses promptly, and metastasises in other bodies are very quickly shown. Often the melanoma arises in a ciliary body, horioidy, an eye iris. Diagnosis of a tumor of a choroid and a ciliary body requires the special equipment therefore to vyvit such form of cancer rather difficult. If development of a tumor of an iris of the eye takes place, then the person often complains of constant irritation of an eye, emergence of a nevus pigmentosus which grows very quickly, development of secondary glaucoma.
Very often a melanoma the eye choroid is surprised. Initially eye tumor symptoms in this case are not shown at all. The concern at the patient appears only when visual acuity sharply decreases, changes a field of vision. In such cases at the person lateral sight can worsen. Owing to such tumor metastasises in other bodies are very often shown. If not to treat him in time, then the lethal outcome as a result is possible.
The most often found oncological disease (according to different data, from 43 — 88% of all tumors of eyes) is the carcinoma. This illness most often develops at women who already were fifty years old. The carcinoma is subdivided on bazalnokletochny and planocellular.
At development of bazalnokletochny cancer of eye most often there is a defeat of a lower eyelid and internal corner of an eye. If the patient does not address specialists at the first symptoms of a disease, and the illness progresses, then it gradually takes an orbit, an eyeglobe, paranasal sinuses, deep departments of a century. At survey of the patient and suspicion on bazalnokletochny cancer the "stearin" shade of a tumor at a tension of a century is noted. Development of bazalnokletochny cancer is possible in several forms: superficial and sclerous, destroying, nodal, ulcer. Depending on forms of this type of cancer also its symptoms vary.
Less life-threatening of the patient the planocellular tumor of an eye is considered. Such cancer mainly does not provoke manifestation of metastasises. The tumor develops generally in the place where the mucous membrane and epidermis of a lower eyelid and an internal corner of an eye borders. Initially the person in skin of a century has a small consolidation which can have both an ulcer, and nodal form. After a while there is its increase, in the center of consolidation there is a crust. If the person tries to remove it, then the crust will bleed. Sometimes such tumor expands till large volumes and passes to a conjunctiva, cheek skin. Sometimes metastasises are shown in cervical, submaxillary, preaurikulyarny lymph nodes.
The carcinoma of sebaceous glands which appears in the thickness of a century is much less often diagnosed, and over time can sprout in a cartilage. At development in sick this illness on a conjunctiva there are papillomatous growths of pink-gray color.
It is also accepted to call a retinoblastoma of a retina diktiomy. Tendency to this illness can be descended therefore the retinoblastoma can be inborn. Therefore, most often this form of a tumor of an eye is diagnosed for children till five years.
To distinguish a retinoblastoma at children, it is necessary to pay attention to its following signs: existence of squint, mydriasis, display of secondary glaucoma and blindness. At reflection from light tumor the pupil of the patient gleams a whitish-yellow luminescence.
At the last stage of this form of cancer of eye, as a rule, there is an exophthalmos. Eyeglobe anteposition is characteristic of this phenomenon. Sometimes it can be also displaced aside, gradually there is a germination of a tumor in a brain and an orbit.
If not to diagnose this form of cancer at early stages and not to provide timely therapy, then progress of an illness can threaten the child's life. At development of this type of oncology of an eye treatment took place in the past only by removal of an eye. However today there are also other methods of therapy. At detection of an illness at early stages it is sometimes possible to do also without operational treatment. At later stages operations at which preservation of the affected eye and sight is possible are performed. Therefore it is extremely important regular osushchestvlt preventive visits to the specialist ophthalmologist.
In practice much more often benign tumors of an eye are diagnosed for patients. Those are about 70% of tumors, but danger consists that they can regenerate very quickly in malignant. Therefore it is also reasonable to delete similar new growths. At the same time educations which appear in an eye are malignant in 80% of cases.
Eye oncology symptoms
It is important to note the fact that in the beginning developments of a disease symptoms of oncology of an eye are shown very poorly. As a result, the person can tighten simply on a visit to the ophthalmologist. And it is fraught with further progressing of an oncological disease of an eye. Only at sharp decrease in visual acuity of the patient can see a doctor. In turn the specialist finds existence of changes on a retina. At development of oncology of an eye of people does not note pain. If the tumor burgeons in an orbit, then as a symptom the exophthalmos can be noted. At this phenomenon mobility of an eye is limited, and the eyeglobe is stuck out forward.
Complications of oncology of an eye
As complications of oncology of an eye specialists define emergence of metastasises in other fabrics and bodies. If in development of an illness there is a protrusion of an eyeglobe, then at the person the corneal syndrome, a nesmykaniye of a palpebral fissure is often shown, the cornea (xerosis), and also a heavy pain syndrome can dry.
Diagnosis of oncology of an eye
In the course of diagnosis of an oncological disease of an eye it is important to collect the anamnesis and to conduct survey of the patient. After that the doctor surely checks visual acuity of the patient, defines fields of vision and examines an eyeglobe. Besides, the oftalmoskopiya – detailed survey of an eyeground is without fail carried out. Not less important point in research is carrying out ultrasonography of an eyeglobe and orbit. But the most informative method in the course of research is carrying out a computer tomography.
Treatment of oncology of an eye
Today the cancer therapy of an eye is made with use of a complex method. The attending physician approaches a question of purpose of treatment individually, depending on a situation appointing chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgical intervention. But the main moment is preservation to the patient of an eye and sight. Today there are statistical data that in 75% of cases patients after treatment manage to keep sight.
Main issue at a cancer therapy of an eye earlier address to the doctor is considered. The earlier treatment is begun, the it is more at the patient of chances to keep sight. Therefore the unique method of prevention of cancer of eye regular survey at the ophthalmologist and an oftalmoonkolog is considered.
Often radiation therapy is applied to treatment of an oncological disease of an eye. Use of a method of brachytherapy at which there is a radiation source podshivaniye for an eyeglobe during a microsurgery practices in modern medicine. Such method allows to achieve good results at rather small damage of tissues of eye.
At big tumors and existence of other features of new growths sometimes apply a radio surgery method to treatment. The essence of such technique consists in radiation by photons by means of the linear accelerator.
If at the patient the tumor of very large volume takes place, removal of an eyeglobe is sometimes made. In the future the eyeglobe prosthesis is established by such patient. If the orbit tumor is diagnosed for the patient, then carrying out a radical operative measure is reasonable to remove a tumor completely.
In case of a new growth on an iris the partial resection of an iris of an eye can be carried out.
At a carcinoma cutaneum of a century use of surgical intervention and the subsequent plastics is reasonable a century. If metastasises already extended in lymph nodes, to the patient carrying out a limfadenektomiya is appointed.
There are also other modern methods of therapy which are used depending on that, the tumor is localized where exactly.
In the course of treatment of the patient has to follow carefully all doctor's instructions, apply himiopreparata and constantly pass the researches appointed by the doctor. Also sick it is necessary to remember that at an eye choroid melanoma secondary tumors very often develop. Such educations can be shown even several years later after successful treatment.
Rehabilitation at oncology of an eye provides use plastic and a reconstructive plastic surgery. In certain cases such operations can be performed along with process of removal of a new growth.
Section: Diseases of eyes