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The pollinosis called still by a seasonal allergic rinokonjyunktivit is an illness of seasonal type which arises because of allergic reaction of the person to pollen of bloomers. One more famous name of this illness – hay fever.
This disease is officially known since the nineteenth century – then, in 1819, a certain doctor John Bostok from England described an illness as hay fever, assuming its communication with hay. However, at the end of the same century it was proved that pollen of plants is the reason of development of this illness.
Today the pollinosis is one of the most widespread diseases of allergic character. Specialists claim that the fifth part of all inhabitants of the world is subject to it. Small pollen of plants which are pollinated by means of wind is an origin of an allergic rinokonjyunktivit. Such plants there are about fifty types today. As a rule, the illness is shown at people to fifty-year age, at later age people are almost not subject to a pollinosis. Generally symptoms of an illness are shown at those patients who already had earlier tendency to allergic diseases. Owing to inhalation of pollen of plants many systems in an organism are surprised. Manifestation strictly seasonal is characteristic of an illness.
Under the influence of allergen, in this case – pollen, there is an inflammatory process in a mucous membrane of a nose. Inside in a nose there is a mucous membrane which main function is removal of any particles from expired air for the purpose of their prevention in lungs of the person. Settling on mucous, particles of pollen of plants also cause allergic manifestations.
Thus, the immune system of the person reacts to "collision" with pollen of plants. Cold, strong sneezing, disturbance or lack of an opportunity to breathe a nose, an itch of eyes, a nose, the sky, the raised department of saliva become symptoms of this illness, as a rule. From a nose watery allocations appear. Also at the person the general symptoms of a pollinosis are shown: high level of fatigue, depression, irritability, small appetite, weight reduction. At an allergic rinokonjyunktivit also other bodies can be surprised. It is very important to differentiate symptoms of a pollinosis and display of usual cold.
Before a pollinosis attack at the patient multiple sneezing owing to irritation by pollen mucous a nose is often shown: sometimes patients sneeze on some tens times. Until impact of pollen on a mucous membrane of a nose continues, at the person cold is observed. The nose congestion also does not disappear throughout an illness. Smorkaniye in this case it is inefficient, the congestion is shown because of the bulked-up nasal covers. Duration of an illness is individual in each separate case. So, sometimes the allergy is shown only by small cold, in other cases the serious condition proceeds several days.
Reaction to allergen is similar and from fabrics which surround eyes. At reaction of a conjunctiva to pollen there is its inflammation and the subsequent hypostasis. As a result of an eye inflame, redden, the patient feels an itch, it is difficult to it to look at the centers of bright light. From eyes tears constantly flow.
In certain cases to become a symptom of a pollinosis also dry cough, and periodic attacks of asthma. Pollen bronchial asthma is so shown. Under the influence of pollen dermatitis, urticaria, a Quincke's edema also sometimes becomes aggravated.
In most cases this disease begins in children's or boyhood. The illness Bol often affects boys. Depending on individual characteristics of each organism symptoms can be heavier or be shown is less expressed. Sometimes, that a several flying later the illness passes, however in many cases the pollinosis is shown throughout all life.
Particles of pollen of plants contain man's sex cells. Pollen for fertilization of ova to other plants is carried by flaws or insects. Pollen which gets on plants by means of wind and is the most menacing allergen for patients with a pollinosis. In the atmosphere in a blooming period of plants of such pollen there is simply huge number. At the same time provokes emergence of allergic reactions pollen from plants, very widespread in our country. In the countries of Europe pollen of herbs is the most common cause of this allergic illness.
The season of active manifestation of a pollinosis comes during pollen maturing which directly depends on weather conditions. So, if spring months were cold, then pollen can ripen later. The so-called "season of a pollinosis" comes in different camps depending on geographical distinctions: in the south – earlier, in the north – later.
Also availability of pollen in air directly depends on climatic conditions at the moment. So, the highest concentration of pollen in the atmosphere is observed in dry days at rather windy weather. Warm flows of air during such period can transfer pollen to very long distances, lifting it is high, lowering below. If air temperature sharply goes down, pollen falls down owing to what there are peculiar clouds from pollen below, is close from a surface. If weather windless or it is raining, the content of pollen in air considerably decreases. Very strongly concentration of pollen increases in air before a thunder-storm. The pollinosis can be shown also owing to impact on the person of the mold mushrooms which are present at air.
The plants provoking a pollinosis
From the allergic point of view plants which are pollinated by means of wind are dangerous. It is a number of deciduous trees, weeds and cereals. Extremely seldom the pollinosis is provoked by pollen of trees of coniferous breeds. The most vysokoalergenny is pollen of a hazel grove, alder, an oak, is clear, birches. Among herbs the allergy is caused by pollen of a fescue, a bentgrass, a herd grass, a foxtail and other weeds. Also in recent months flying and in the first months of fall blossom dangerous to people of a grass, sensitive to pollen: wormwood, nettle, orach, ambrosia.
Diagnosis of a pollinosis
In view of the fact that symptoms of this disease are shown seasonally, its diagnosis does not represent special difficulties for specialists. Considering during what period attacks were shown, the doctor helps the patient to establish what blossoming a plant affects the person in such a way. However it is necessary to consider that the people subject to allergic reactions to pollen of plants, very seldom suffer only from one certain type of pollen.
At statement of the diagnosis sometimes it is necessary studying of content of allocations from a nose. At a pollinosis at them there are eosinophils, and also mast cells, that is white blood cells which take part in allergic reactions. Also for statement of the diagnosis and establishment of a type of the pollen provoking similar reaction skin samples are taken.
Treatment of a pollinosis
For simplification of displays of cold and an itch by the patient appoint reception of antihistaminic drugs. At the same time it is necessary to consider that similar medicines cannot eliminate hypostasis. Such drugs, as a rule, make sedative impact on the person therefore patients rather often in the course of treatment complain of fatigue and drowsiness. Today there is a number of antihistamines (loratadin, Tsetirizin, dezloratadin), very effective in the course of treatment of this disease.
To remove the shown hypostasis, a sick pollinosis appoint antiedematouses. They influence vessels in a mucous membrane of a nose, narrowing them. Such means let out in the form of drops in a nose, and they act very quickly. But at the same time the effect of use of similar medicine remains rather short time owing to what it is necessary to use drugs very often. Such approach can reduce efficiency of similar means considerably after a while. In this regard similar medicines recommend to accept within no more than two weeks. Such drugs after their reception can influence a blood pressure, raising it. Therefore people with the raised ABP should treat their reception very carefully. Often means of antiedematous action and antihistaminic drugs appoint in a complex.
On condition of the regular use antiallergenic drugs effectively interfere with allocation of a histamine and other chemical mediators. However it is necessary to use similar means prior to the beginning of the allergic principle. So, people at whom the seasonal pollinosis connected with blossoming of herbs is shown every year have to begin reception of similar drugs at the beginning of May. Those who suffers from reaction to pollen of the blossoming trees should begin reception of antiallergenic HP in February. Similar drugs are used also in the course of therapy of children.
If all attempts of treatment of a disease of the above described means had no due effect, then the doctor can appoint reception of corticosteroids. Similar drug influence a myxopoiesis and hypostasis, reducing similar manifestations. Corticosteroids are appointed at a current of a pollinosis for reduction of its attacks. Such drugs should be accepted long before an initial blossom to similarly antiallergenic means. Such drugs, as a rule, do not provoke side effects in the course of treatment of a pollinosis. Use of corticosteroids is justified in especially hard cases.
Today allergen - a specific immunotherapy is also actively applied to treatment of this disease. In a human body, suffering from a pollinosis, the vaccine which was made of pollen of plants which provoke allergic reaction is entered. Vaccine doses gradually increase that as a result causes peculiar "accustoming" to pollen. Similar treatment is carried out only by the specialist allergist. It should be applied regularly within several years, it is necessary to carry out vaccination when blossoming is not observed. Today the given method is considered almost only way to reach long remission and to anticipate development and complication of a pollinosis.
Also doctors recommend use of a climatotherapy. In the presence of a similar opportunity patients are recommended to leave for the period blossoming of plants this climatic zone to prevent contact of the person with the pollen causing allergic reaction.
Prevention of a pollinosis
To prevent development of a pollinosis in a blooming period, it is necessary to follow a number of simple rules. So, the patient should stay at home whenever possible during the period to eleven o'clock in the morning. It is not recommended to go on the nature to the country to this period. In the house of a window it is desirable to curtain very small grid and to throw out all dry bouquets. Before an exit to the street it is necessary to take surely sunglasses, and houses, after return from the street, at once to wash clear water mucous a nose and an eye. To the people inclined to an allergy, it is not necessary to apply the cosmetics, shampoos, soap made on the basis of plants allergens. Similarly you should not use food from these plants. Long before the beginning of a season of blossoming it is necessary to complete a course of the drugs appointed by the doctor.