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Manifestations of an old age
The first manifestations of an old age are biological age changes which happen in an organism of each person over time. In the course of aging at first the involutional changes proceeding in fabrics and bodies therefore their functionality changes are observed. At molecular level synthesizing of proteins is broken, and genetic changes are shown afterwards. Most clearly the involution of a thymus gland resulting from age changes is noticeable, this process happens from first years of life of the kid and begins in gradual aging and the subsequent dying off of cells.
In each organism the quantity of the developed leukocytes, including the V-leukocytes responsible for development of antibodies which are in plasmocytes decreases over time. The arising defects of stem cells happening in them disturbances insufficient production of antigens lead to considerable depression of function of the T-cells supporting immune system. These changes affect immune system, promote development of malignancies. Disturbances in work of an epiphysis lead to melatonin hormone secretion reduction that negatively influences a cycle of a dream and wakefulness, and also reproductive system.
Changes in a musculoskeletal system
Decrease in a mineralization in a bone tissue belongs to age changes in a musculoskeletal system, the consequence of what becomes development of osteoporosis. The risk of changes increases, disturbances of cartilaginous tissue lead to deterioration in flexibility of a backbone, attrition of cartilages leads to growth shortening, causes change of a bearing and unsteadiness of gait.
Changes in bodies of a hemopoiesis
The age changes proceeding in bodies of a hemopoiesis are directly connected with formation of uniform elements.
Aging of the person leads to the fact that marrow is gradually substituted with connecting fabric and fats, at the same time the quantity of active cells decreases. In an organism there comes essential decrease in level of an erythrogenesis, disturbance of the anticoagulative and curtailing systems of blood can lead to an embolism and thromboses, the risk of developing of ischemic strokes increases. The endocardium thickening is observed, development of coronary atherosclerosis is possible, the risk of developing of a heart attack as a result increases.
Changes in a respiratory organs
Age changes affect also respiratory system, there is a considerable expansion of alveoluses between which partitions are used up and disappear, emphysema can develop. Decrease in amount of elastic fibers quite often leads to deterioration in elasticity of fabric of which lungs of the person consist, its distensibility is broken that leads to various diseases of a respiratory organs. Capacity of lungs and number of pulmonary capillaries decreases, ventilation of alveoluses worsens, load of respiratory system as a result increases.
Changes in digestive organs
Aging of the person is displayed on the alimentary system. The small intestine is extended, and the intestinal wall loses a tone, it leads to decrease in intensity of pristenochny digestion, the mucous membrane of bodies of the alimentary system is practically not regenerated that results in bad absorbability of many nutrients. Age changes affect a liver and a pancreas, activity of production of enzymes, and also amylolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activity decreases.
There is a stagnation of bile in a gall bladder of the person, the risk of formation of stones increases. Still in the middle age there are changes in a gullet peristaltics which quite often lead to development of atrophic gastritis.
Disturbances of secretory and motor functions of a stomach lead to regular locks. Utilization of fats happens slowly, as a result in blood a large number of lipids appears, cholesterol level significantly increases, atherosclerotic plaques can be formed.
Changes in secretory system
With age the mass of kidneys decreases, the renal blood stream decreases, as a result the speed necessary for glomerular filtering significantly decreases. Among changes in secretory system at men prostate adenoma is quite often observed. Walls of urinary tract lose elasticity, there is a risk of manifestation of a reflux of urine, and in uric channels the infection extends, at old men the urine incontience is quite often observed.
Changes of an integument
The most noticeable sign of aging of an organism are changes of skin, this process is influenced by dilatation of veins and an obliteration of arterioles. Owing to influence of sunshine on skin quite often there is changed nevus pigmentosus which received the name of dermatogelioz. Such changes of an integument as flabbiness of skin, emergence of wrinkles and emergence of a xeroderma are most noticeable. Manifestations of an old age affects also hair, they change color, the painting pigments cease to be developed, at many the hair loss begins. Nails become fragile, their transparency is broken, at many the thickening of a nail plate is observed.
Changes of reproductive function
At men after fifty years change of reproductive function is observed, function of a spermatogenesis weakens, in blood concentration of testosterone considerably decreases. The atherosclerosis of arteries occurring at men at advanced age quite often leads to impotence, in the venous system supplying with blood generative organs, there are also essential changes.
Women have other changes, at fifty-year age of manifestation of an old age are characterized by a climacteric, vagina muscles, the vulva and an urethra will atrophy. The climax at women in most cases is followed by frequent depressions, continuous change of mood, irritability manifestation.
Changes of endocrine system
With age various disturbances in work of endocrine system begin, the structure of hormones changes, their activity considerably decreases, activity of TTG becomes very low, there are essential changes of molecular weight. The insignificant amount of glucose comes to muscles, in blood the smaller amount of insulin is developed that causes risk of development of a diabetes mellitus.
Changes of touch systems
Deterioration in hearing – one of signs of approach of an old age coming owing to essential increase in rigidity of a basilar membrane. Kortiyev body will atrophy, there is a metabolic insufficiency in which the degeneration of the thinned vascular stripe inevitably results. Neurons of touch systems gradually die off therefore the ear of the person is not able to process various sound information fully any more.
Decrease in elasticity of a crystalline lens leads to deterioration in sight, the crystalline lens becomes muddy, and at its pathological changes there can be a cataract leading to a blindness. In an eye cornea quite often there is a so-called "senile arch" which emergence is influenced considerably by change of lipids, at many disturbance of watery moisture of an eye owing to deterioration in its circulation is observed. The degeneration of a pigmental epithelium occurs, as a rule, after occurrence of seventy five summer age.
Such age changes often influence a bad review of all remote objects. Sensitivity of an eye decreases, increase of intraocular pressure quite often leads to developing of glaucoma or an atrophy of an optic nerve. There are changes of flavoring feelings, the quantity of taste bulbs in front part of language decreases steadily, developed absolutely insignificant amount of saliva.
Section: Gerontology (Ageing)