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Childbirth at the woman is a natural process which is completion of pregnancy. At the time of delivery there is an exile from a uterus of a fruit and an afterbirth in patrimonial ways which the channel of a neck of uterus and a vagina are. Childbirth begins with pains.
Beginning of childbirth
Preparation of an organism of the woman for childbirth begins with the 38th week of pregnancy: it is the period when the fruit is considered completely full-term. At this time there is a hormonal reorganization: the amount of progesterone decreases, at the same time the amount of estrogen increases. As soon as in an organism of the woman enough estrogen collects, there is a beginning of patrimonial activity. But till its beginning influence of estrogen promotes increase of level of elasticity of patrimonial ways. The neck of uterus is gradually softened and its channel opens. The mucous stopper – the weight which filled the channel of a neck earlier departs. As a rule, the stopper departs for several days, gradually. But in certain cases it can sharply depart: then the woman notes emergence of a small gel lump. At a stopper otkhozhdeniya the pregnant woman sometimes feels weak pain and discomfort in the bottom of a stomach.
One more important harbinger of childbirth is an omission of an uterine fundus. Closer to childbirth the fruit nestles the head on pelvic bones, respectively, the uterus falls. At the same time future mother notes that at her there passes short wind and heartburn as the uterus does not press so strongly on a diaphragm any more.
Several weeks prior to childbirth the weight of the pregnant woman is a little lost: the organism is left by excess liquid that is caused by hormonal changes.
One more important harbinger of childbirth are so-called false labor. Very often women, especially those which expect the first child take such pains for true.
Most often such training fights stop independently, continuing about two hours. Last week before childbirth false labor arise rather often. In more exceptional cases such pains can turn into continuous patrimonial activity.
At manifestation of harbingers of childbirth patrimonial process does not happen prompt. Therefore at their emergence the woman has to watch closely own health and get ready gradually for future childbirth
The real patrimonial activity begins with pains. Initially they are incontinuous and are not most painful or strong discomfort. At the woman for several seconds the stomach then he relaxes before the following fight begins hardens. To learn that pains true, but not false, definition of an interval between them will help: at true pains intervals equal on duration. Besides, at the beginning of patrimonial activity of fight develop dynamically. That is gradually feelings amplify, intervals become shorter each time, and the duration of pains is extended.
At different women childbirth continues a different amount of time. In most cases the second childbirth, and the takzheroda following them last less time, than first labor. So, patrimonial process at primapara mothers, as a rule, continues about 9 — 11 hours, in certain cases childbirth can last till 18 o'clock. At women who give birth repeatedly duration of childbirth makes 6 — 8 hours, and their most admissible duration in this case – till 14 o'clock. When exceeding the maximum temporary indicators childbirth call long. At the same time childbirth which lasts 4 — 6 hours at primapara mothers and 2 — 4 hours at mothers who are giving birth repeatedly call fast. If all process came to the end in 4 hours at the primapara woman and in 2 hours at multipara, then it is about prompt childbirth. All options which deviate norm are considered as pathology.
It is accepted to distinguish three different periods of childbirth: the period of disclosure of a uterus — the first period; the period of exile of the child — the second period; postnatal — the third period.
From the beginning of the first pains at the woman there takes place process of disclosure of a neck of uterus. Initially disclosure of a neck makes 2 — 3 cm, and in the course of pains it reveals to 10 — 12 cm. In most cases at the end of the first period of childbirth occurs izlity amniotic waters as the bag of waters is opened. Period of disclosure of a neck of uterus the longest: it makes from 5 to 12 hours.
After the neck of uterus completely opened, the second period of childbirth comes. In the course of an expulsion of the fetus allocate the period of attempts when the woman reduces a diaphragm and muscles of a front abdominal wall under the leadership of the obstetrician.
In a puerperal period which begins with that moment as the child is born, there is a birth of an afterbirth which consists of a placenta and fetal membranes.
Pain at the time of delivery
To learn how there takes place childbirth, many women address different sources, studying childbirth in pictures and reading various information. And most of pregnant women first of all interests a question of whether childbirth without pain is possible.
Today many methods which can facilitate considerably pain in the course of patrimonial activity are offered. But nevertheless each woman has to know that medicamentous methods of a labor pain relief have many negative by-effects therefore they are applied only on medical indicators.
Pain relief is promoted at the time of delivery by active release of hormones of endorphines, the events at the time of delivery. They help to relax, reduce pain and provide a condition of emotional lift. But in order that production of endorphines happened actively, the woman has to remain quiet and concentrated, to try to be nervous as little as possible.
If future mother is exhausted from fear, then her muscles constantly stay in a tension. Respectively, tension considerably strengthens pain. Therefore specialists recommend to study to relax even before childbirth consciousness and muscles. Not to be nervous in labor, it is necessary to resolve all questions connected with the child's birth, in advance and to find confidence in success of the forthcoming process. There are some techniques of breath, auto-suggestion which help to control feelings at the time of delivery. Tell about them on special courses for pregnant women.
For removal of a sensation of pain at the first pains it is recommended to plunge into a heat bath. It can be made still houses, and in a maternity home it is possible to take a shower.
Modern doctors recommend to women to choose independently that pose in which to it will be most comfortable to transfer fights and childbirth. If the pose is chosen correctly, then pain will be much less notable. But each woman has to choose a pose individually: in the course of pains it is possible to go, squat, bend down.
How to stimulate childbirth
Specialists allocate a number of situations when it is necessary to think of how to cause childbirth. Artificial process of calling of childbirth on different terms of incubation of the child is called a rodovozbuzhdeniye. These actions are reasonable if postmature pregnancy is diagnosed for the woman. The specialist can make the similar conclusion not only if duration of pregnancy exceeds 42 weeks, but also being guided by a condition of the child.
If at the woman occurred izlity amniotic waters prior to fights, and patrimonial activity does not begin for three hours, then in this case the doctor makes the decision of an odynagogue. The matter is that at the long anhydrous period the risk of infection of a fruit and the woman increases.
It is reasonable to stimulate childbirth and if there is placental detachment. If at the same time severe bleeding takes place, then the attending physician makes the decision on carrying out the emergency Cesarean section.
Besides, the rodovozbuzhdeniye is sometimes carried out if at the woman the late gestosis is observed, and also at a Rhesus factor conflict.
Most often the rodovozbuzhdeniye is made by an amniotomy method, that is carry out opening of a bag of waters by the special tool. Further for several hours it is observed a condition of the woman then to her intravenously administer those drugs which excite further patrimonial activity. Further actions of the doctor depend on development of the situation. So, if the woman has no strong contractions, then patrimonial activity is stimulated by administration of drugs by oxytocin or Enzaprostum. The behavior of an odynagogue provides continuous and very accurate control of in what state the fruit stays.
How to accelerate childbirth, women whose duration of gestation already allows to expect pains can reflect, and at the same time they believe that their organism is already completely prepared for the forthcoming childbirth. They can try some natural methods stimulating childbirth. First of all, it is sexual intercourse: in sperm there are substances which make impact on a neck of uterus, stimulating it by the beginning of patrimonial process.
The active physical activity or exercises can accelerate childbirth also. However, the pregnant woman cannot be overstrained, of course, and here active walks, swimming, the yogi is quite acceptable in this case.
It is recommended to try to make several times massage of nipples as such actions stimulate release of hormone oxytocin, defiant reduction of a uterus. But such massage needs to be done extremely accurately not to allow injuries.
Childbirth with the husband
To feel more surely, many women consciously decide on joint childbirth – in that case at patrimonial activity there will be a partner. In our country childbirth with the husband becomes more and more widespread every year. Presence of the loved one will allow not only to control more accurately all process, but also will give the chance to the partner to experience unforgettable emotions. However in this case exist different opinions, and the decision on presence of the husband on childbirth the woman has to make together with the partner, having approached this question is the most conscious. So, some women just do not wish that close people observed them in so unattractive look, other pregnant women are afraid that they will behave is held too down. Besides rather often the man himself does not wish to be present at the time of delivery, being guided by own fears. But if the man nevertheless makes the decision to support the wife, then it should approach a question consciously and to know that he expects it. From it not passive presence near the woman, and the active help to the wife in the course of childbirth is required. So, the husband can do the anesthetizing massage, wipe sweat, support in the course of pains and attempts. In certain cases to the father even allow to cut off an umbilical cord after the birth of the kid.
Childbirth in water
Some women consciously make the decision to give birth to the child in water. Childbirth in water differs from usual process of the birth of the kid in the fact that the woman periodically is in process of patrimonial activity in a bathtub or the pool with warm water. Directly during the birth of the kid the woman in labor also stays in water, therefore, the kid leaves on water Wednesday.
Specialists allocate several important points which testify both in favor of such childbirth, and against them. It is proved that water positively influences the general condition of the woman in labor, besides stay in water weakening influences all muscles, thereby taking off intensive pain. In water the probability of emergence of colporrheses as it under the influence of water becomes more elastic decreases.
But at the same time it is much more difficult to doctor to control childbirth in water. Also the moment of possible infection is important: the woman stays in water a long time, and colibacillus in the water environment breeds in several hours. Therefore, water needs to be changed often. And if there is bleeding after the delivery, then the help to the woman who is giving birth in water will be much more difficult to be rendered.
Also there is no certain opinion on that, such special childbirth how positively affects the child: there is a certain risk that the baby can swallow water as his first sigh and disclosure of lungs can occur in the water environment.
Childbirth in water is possible at the normal course of pregnancy, in the absence of chronic diseases, and the woman has to make the decision on it only after careful weighing of all facts.
The second and subsequent childbirth can differ from the birth of the first child considerably. As a rule, at the women who are giving birth the second time childbirth lasts a smaller amount of time, besides duration of the most painful contractions decreases. Similar feature is explained by the fact that elasticity of a neck of uterus and muscles of a vagina increases due to last childbirth. Besides, the woman having similar experience already knows how it is necessary to behave in labor and does more right thing. The woman transfers the second childbirth much easier and from the psychological point of view as she perfectly understands that she waits for it. There are much more surprises and new impressions can show childbirth of the first child. Respectively, future mother at the second childbirth always feels less fear, experiences and is more sure of herself.
Pregnancy and childbirth are rather difficult and wearisome period for the woman. Therefore its organism has to be ready to such hard tests. And healthy the woman feels as the strongest till 35 flyings. Therefore childbirth which happens at the woman after this age it is accepted to allocate and call late.
Today physicians define the woman who decides on the birth of the first kid aged after 35 flyings as "age primapara". Now the number of such mothers promptly increases. According to statistical data, the number of women who for the first time became mothers aged between 30 and 40 years increased three times if to compare to indicators of twenty-year prescription.
Late childbirth is the ordinary phenomenon in Europe and America for a long time. But at the same time each woman who decided on late childbirth has to realize all risk surely.
Therefore in this case, first of all, comprehensive and continuous supervision of specialists is important. The woman has to understand that at mature age she, as a rule, already has some chronic illnesses, infectious diseases in the anamnesis. The unhealthy way of life and process of aging of an organism can also negatively influence development of the kid. Besides process of incubation of the child can badly affect a condition of the woman, provoking an essential lack of calcium and other important elements of an organism.
However at the conscious attitude towards own health and way of life pregnancy and late childbirth can take place quite successfully. It is important to pass timely all necessary researches, to conduct examination on existence of genetic anomalies of a fruit prior to the beginning of the 16th week of pregnancy, to be morally ready to the birth and education of the kid.
Premature births are a childbirth which happens at the woman till 37th week of pregnancy. In that case the been born child call premature. The beginning of premature births is similar to development of timely patrimonial activity. At the woman pains in the lower part of a stomach are shown, gradually gaining skhvatkoobrazny character. Begins often premature births izlity amniotic waters, the mucous stopper sometimes departs. At any of the described scenarios it is important to woman to ask for medical assistance immediately.
Various infections, existence in the anamnesis of diseases of a uterus, intrauterine interventions can provoke similar process. Especially the women who already had premature births earlier have to show consideration for own state. Existence at the woman of istmiko-cervical insufficiency – a disease at which inferiority of a layer of muscles of a neck of uterus takes place is one more reason of premature births.
Sometimes premature patrimonial activity arises owing to severe stretching of a uterus which is caused by polycarpous pregnancy, too big fruit, a hydramnion. The strong physical overstrain, an emotional stress, an acute infectious illness can provoke premature births.
At the address to the woman's doctor with complaints to the premature beginning of patrimonial activity her pregnancy is tried to be continued and kept. Drugs which reduce a uterus tone other means are for this purpose appointed, and also therapy for elimination of the reasons of such phenomenon is carried out. At the same time the pregnant woman has to adhere constantly to a bed rest and follow all recommendations of the doctor.
Section: Childbirth and puerperal period