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Abscess is a purulent inflammation of fabrics with formation of a cavity which is surrounded with a piogenic membrane. Places of possible emergence: bones, muscles, hypodermic cellulose, and also other bodies.
Various diseases (retropharyngeal abscess can be an origin of abscess at quinsy, inflammations of fabrics at pneumonia, injuries, etc.), cases of independent emergence are also known.
Microbes are an origin of abscess, most often infection happens through the injured mucous membranes, skin sites, and also to drift activators from other center through lymphatic and blood vessels. Thus, abscess by means of formation of a capsule shows protective functions of an organism, limiting not infected sites of fabrics from infected.
The mixed microflora with dominance of stafilokokk and streptococci is the causative agent of abscesses and phlegmons. Also significant role in their development is played by klostrida, bacteroids and anaerobe bacterias. Existence in abscess and activators, not specific to the current disease, is possible, such data were obtained as a result of opening of some inflammations. Their large number has a talk with atypical treatment it.
The amount of pus in a cavity depends on the activator, a type of fabric, and also the overall clinical picture of a current of an inflammation, in certain cases it can reach liter though abscesses most often meet several milliliters of pus.
Symptoms of abscesses depend on a look, but generally it is the increased body temperature (to 41 degrees), a febricula, dizziness and loss of appetite, a leukocytosis. The outcome of abscess can be various: the spontaneous proryvaniye outside (a paraproctitis, mastitis, abscess of hypodermic cellulose), break in a gleam of bodies which have communication with external environment (bronchial tubes a gut), and also break in the closed systems (in a joint cavity, in an abdominal cavity), such break is the most dangerous. Under favorable conditions the emptied cavity decreases in sizes and is exposed to scarring. Incomplete emptying can lead to a chronic form as a result of which burrowing is possible.
There are several types of abscesses:
Cold abscess is often observed in certain phases of a current of an actinomycosis or bone and joint tuberculosis. Accumulation of pus without the general and local manifestations of inflammatory reaction which are characteristic of usual abscess (the increased body temperature, erubescence, pain) is characteristic of it.
Congestive abscess is abscess which is not followed by acute inflammatory reaction, usually meets at bone and joint tuberculosis.
Subphrenic abscess is accumulation of pus, usually with gas, under a diaphragm (a belly partition); is complication of acute inflammatory diseases (a perforated ulcer of a duodenum or stomach, cholecystitis, appendicitis).
Treatment of abscess
Early diagnosis with the subsequent treatment is a necessary condition for successful disposal of a purulent inflammation. The diagnosis of abscess is a reason for an operative measure therefore in most cases for their treatment use surgical methods. At first the purulent cavity is opened, further is emptied and drained. Disposal of small abscesses of a hypodermic fatty tissue is carried out in ambulatny conditions and represents simple operation under local anesthesia.
In case of suspicion of abscess of any internal body of the patient usually hospitalize in operational department. At abscesses of some bodies the puncture and aspiration of pus, and also introduction of antibiotics is made.
After opening abscesses are treated as well as purulent wounds. At prescription of antibiotics sensitivity of microflora to them is considered. In that case when purulent inflammations arise against a diabetes mellitus, normalization of a metabolism is necessary. Treatment of abscesses in most cases happens successfully, without the need for a further operative measure.