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March 16, 2012
Adenoma is a tumor of high-quality character, a neoplasia of a ferruterous epithelium. Respectively, it can develop in all bodies which contain a ferruterous epithelium. As a rule, such tumor happens hormonedependent. Adenomas can be subdivided according to their localization, depending on it also its symptoms are shown. Generally symptoms of adenoma become expressed when adenoma in view of increase in the sizes begins to squeeze the certain educations important for normal functioning of an organism.
Till today the reason for which there are hypophysis adenomas remains obscure. It is considered to be that factors which have to emergence of adenoma are infectious processes in a nervous system of the person, traumatizing a brain, skull, negative impact of some factors on a fruit in the course of pregnancy.
Most often adenoma of a hypophysis arises at people at 30-40 summer age, both at men, and at women the tumor is shown equally often. Adenoma of a hypophysis is classified by the sizes, allocating microadenomas (the education which is not exceeding 1 cm), and also macroadenomas. From the point of view of hormonal function allocate hormonal and inactive and hormonal active adenomas of a hypophysis. In turn hormonal and active adenomas of a hypophysis subdivide into prolaktinoma, kortikotropinoma, somatotropinoma, tirotropinoma, gonadotropinoma.
Symptoms of adenoma of a hypophysis are shown depending on what hormonal function of a new growth is. If at the person hormonal and active adenoma takes place, then hormonal specific disturbances will be its main manifestations. If hormonal and inactive adenoma is diagnosed, then generally at patients various vision disorders are observed, and also they are disturbed by headaches. At big adenoma of a hypophysis sometimes the person feels a sharp and sudden attack of a headache, at it visual acuity falls and if the hypothalamus is involved in pathological process, then also disturbances of consciousness are possible. Headaches amplify at acceleration of growth of adenoma that can occur, for example, during pregnancy. Also similar symptom is shown when there is hemorrhage in a tumor. This heavy, however, not fatal complication of adenoma of a hypophysis.
For statement of the diagnosis it is necessary to conduct full hormonal, and also ophthalmologic research. An important diagnostic method at adenoma of a hypophysis is the magnetic and resonant tomography by means of which it is possible to find adenomas which size makes less than five millimeters. But nevertheless it is possible to visualize adenoma not in each case. Sometimes the specialist appoints also computer tomography. It is important that diagnosis of adenoma was made in a complex. In the course of establishment of the diagnosis it is necessary to differentiate it with tumors of hormonal and inactive character, and also with the tumors localized not in a hypophysis.
Treatment of adenoma of a hypophysis is carried out with use of medicamentous drugs — agonists of dopamine, antagonists of serotonin, analogs of somatostatin, inhibitors of products of cortisol. Most often at therapy of adenoma of a hypophysis drug Parlodelum (Bromocriptinum) which shows the highest performance in the course of treatment by prolactin is appointed. If necessary also operational treatment of adenoma of a hypophysis is appointed what transsphenoidal and transcranial removal of adenoma is applied to. As auxiliary therapy radiation is carried out. The method of radio surgery is applied to treatment of adenomas of the small size. Its use provides introduction to adenoma of radioactive materials. If the patient has a vision disorder, and also hemorrhages in adenoma are diagnosed, then use of neurosurgical therapy is possible.
It is important that for a certain type of a tumor the individual technique of treatment was picked up. Patients at whom treatment of adenoma of a hypophysis was carried out have to stay under continuous supervision of specialists — the neurosurgeon, the endocrinologist.
As for the forecast at hypophysis adenoma, it directly depends on what sizes of a tumor, and also from its hormonal function. At patients with prolaktinomy and somatotropinomy recovery from the "hormonal" point of view comes in 20-25% of cases, at mikrokortikotropinoma patients recover in 85% of cases.
Adrenal gland adenoma
Adenoma of an adrenal gland is a high-quality new growth which arises in internal glands. But over time benign adenoma can regenerate in a tumor malignant. Besides, adenoma of an adrenal gland can negatively affect bodies, nearby, and also exert a negative impact on a state of health of the person in general.
Today adenoma of an adrenal gland is diagnosed rather often. However it is revealed mainly accidentally, at inspection of abdominal organs. Some adenomas of an adrenal gland develop a large amount of hormone of cortisol. But in most cases such adenomas do not make hormones.
There is the following classification of adenomas of adrenal glands: it is allocated adrenocortical, pigmental and onkotsitarny adenomas.
At adrenocortical adenoma which is the most widespread there is a node which is similar to a capsule. Much less often pigmental adenomas which can sometimes be followed a syndrome of Kushinga occur at people. Pigmental adenomas have the size no more than 2-3 centimeters.
Outward of onkotsitarny adenoma often reminds other types of adenomas. This kind of a tumor meets very seldom. Adenoma has a granular structure, it is made by large cells with a large number of mitochondrions.
Adrenal glands of the person consist of set of brain and cortical layers which are a favorable basis for emergence of adenomas. The bast layer of an adrenal gland is responsible for a producing steroids, and production of hormones sometimes becomes excessive. As a result, adenomas of adrenal glands are formed.
The phenomena which arise owing to change of a hormonal background become a symptom of adenoma of an adrenal gland. At this disease the masculinization at women and feminization at men can be shown. Sharp addition of body weight becomes one more symptom of adenoma of adrenal glands, manifestation of an idiopathic hypertensia is possible later. The symptomatology of a disease is shown as a result of existence of the syndromes which arose because of excess of the hormones produced by adrenal glands.
For establishment of the diagnosis the analyses allowing to define hypophysis adenoma are initially carried out and only after that research on existence of adenoma of adrenal glands is conducted. By means of radio graphical methods of researches it is possible to receive a sharp image of adenoma.
Treatment of adenoma of an adrenal gland is carried out by a surgery. If an operative measure is made before there was a modification of adenoma in a malignant tumor, that is a carcinoma, then treatment comes in most cases. At a carcinoma of adrenal glands the survival of patients makes no more than 40%. Therefore it is very important to begin treatment of this illness timely.
Adenoma of a thyroid gland
Benign tumor is also adenoma of a thyroid gland. It looks as a node of oval or rounded shape, at a fibrous capsule is well-marked. The disease develops slowly, can be shown at people at any age, however most often adenoma of a thyroid gland women, mainly after forty years have. Rather often the tumor has the impressive sizes owing to what it can squeeze nearby bodies, and also structures of a neck. Over time such tumor can be transformed to a cancer of a thyroid gland.
Adenoma of a thyroid gland is a dangerous illness, owing to a tumor the thyroid gland begins to produce excess amount of hormones. At the same time function of a hypophysis is suppressed, development of Thyrotropinum decreases, and functions of other tissue of thyroid gland go down.
Adenomas of a thyroid gland can be subdivided on follicular, macrofollicular (colloid), microfollicular, embryonal, fetalis and other types of adenoma.
The main clinical sign of adenoma of a thyroid gland is existence of a node in a thyroid gland. This node, as a rule, has the oval or round form, its surface smooth, edges accurately are defined. In certain cases there are multiple adenomas, sometimes adenoma is combined with cancer and a craw. Functions of a thyroid gland at adenoma are broken only in rare instances.
At toxic adenoma of a thyroid gland at the person body weight decreases though food at the same time remains invariable. The person becomes irritable, he badly transfers cold and a heat, at him the heart rhythm often becomes frequent, and, it occurs even in the period of a dream. Also at adenoma of a thyroid gland strong perspiration and high level of fatigue is shown.
In development of a disease functions of an enterogastric path are broken, the person suffers from supertension, sometimes at it the long time is observed high temperature of a body. Also development of changes in work of cardiovascular system takes place. Gradually at the person heart failure is shown.
Diagnosis of adenoma of a thyroid gland is carried out with use of ultrasonic, and also cytologic research. For receiving material for a biopsy the node puncture is carried out. Further the aspiration biopsy which in most cases helps to distinguish adenoma from a malignant tumor is made.
Treatment of adenoma of a thyroid gland is in most cases carried out by means of a surgery. Before operation of the patient accepts a rate of drugs which suppress functions of a thyroid gland. It is important to provide to the patient observance of a proteinaceous diet, good rest and a dream. Later adenoma is deleted surgically. In certain cases carry out by the elderly patient therapy of tirotoksichesky adenoma by means of influence of a radioiodine.
Also there is a method of treatment at which alcohol is entered into a node. Similar injections make several times for the purpose of destruction of a node and, as a result, the termination of production of hormones adenoma.
At adenoma of a prostate there is a growth of tissues of prostate gland, and as a result of its sizes strongly increase. There is a statistics according to which, about a half of men is more senior than fifty-year age suffer from prostate adenoma.
The sedentary life is considered a basic reason of developing of this illness. Prostate adenoma often develops against change of a hormonal background at men. Therefore, the disease is characteristic of elderly people.
The prostate is located at the man under a bladder and surrounds an urethra from all directions. When adenoma is formed, in a prostate at first the small small knot appears. It grows, squeezing gradually an urethra. Such education is high-quality. At adenoma of a prostate of the patient notes increase in a prostate. It breaks urine outflow: the urine stream always sluggish, and at the end of an urination it becomes discontinuous. Time of an urination increases and completely to empty a bladder, the person should strain a prelum abdominale.
The man feels frequent desires, cannot long constrain urine at a desire, is forced to urinate at night.
If in time not to accept a measure, then gradually the sick man has a damage of kidneys, the renal failure is shown. In view of an ischuria in a bladder owing to its incomplete devastation in kidneys stones can appear. Also there is a high risk of infection of an urinogenital path.
In especially hard cases manifestation of an acute ischuria is possible. At the same time there is full crossclamping of an urethra, and urine does not pass in general. The patient feels at the same time very severe pain in the bottom of a stomach. The similar phenomenon can occur on any of stages of development of adenoma of a prostate. At such state the patient needs an urgent surgery. In certain cases the illness can proceed without the expressed symptoms.
Diagnosis of adenoma of a prostate is carried out by the specialist urologist. Manual research of a prostate, ultrasonography diagnosis, an urofloumetriya, X-ray inspection and other methods which are appointed by the attending physician is for this purpose used.
At the moment many ways of treatment of adenoma of a prostate practice. At manifestation of the first symptoms of adenoma the doctor appoints medicamentous therapy. Dl of it are used drugs which influence muscle fibers of a prostate, relaxing them. As a result pressure upon an urethra decreases. Purpose of drugs which reduce prostate volume is also possible. As a result pressure upon an urethra is similarly facilitated.
If adenoma of a prostate is shown in a severe form, then to the patient carrying out a surgery is appointed.
Besides, some not operational ways of treatment of adenoma are applied. So, balloon dilatation of a prostate by means of which it is possible to expand the narrowed site is sometimes used. Also prostatic stents to the place of narrowing are established. Also the prostate thermotherapy method is applied.
As preventive measures for the prevention of display of adenoma it is necessary to adhere to the principles of healthy food, not to abuse alcohol, to provide active lifestyle and a moderate exercise stress. It is important to pass regular inspections at the urologist to find an illness at an early stage.