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The term an adnexitis integrates in itself two various inflammatory diseases: inflammation of ovaries (oophoritis) and inflammation of uterine tubes (salpingitis). Respectively the name "salpingo-oophoritis" means the same, as an adnexitis.
The disease has the infectious nature and begins with an inflammation in uterine tubes. If during inflammatory process exudate which gradually spreads on all pipe is formed, and can get to a belly opening or to a cavity of the uterus. In either case effects at an illness can be the most serious.
As in a uterine tube or in an ovary exudate collects, they begin to expand noticeably, and the ovary takes spherical shape, and a uterine tube – retortoobrazny.
If it is about an adnexitis – a salpingitis, then without appropriate treatment it can lead to a blockage of a uterine tube that naturally leads to infertility. At an oophoritis the cover of an ovary becomes dense and impenetrable for microbes. Therefore the capsule formed as a result of inflammatory process carries out protective function, on the one hand interfering with further penetration of an infection, and on the other hand protecting an organism from distribution of the collected purulent liquid which filtered from blood vessels during an inflammation.
The mentioned growth of uterine tubes and/or ovaries inevitably leads to change of an arrangement some bodies and to disturbances in their function. Most often the rectum and a bladder which are in close proximity to the place of an inflammation suffer.
Treatment of an adnexitis generally is conservative, especially in an acute stage. Reception of antibacterial drugs is supplemented with suction of the accumulated purulent liquid which is made through a special puncture. In more detail about it and other methods of treatment of a disease we will tell further, but at first we will stop on the reasons and the main symptoms.
As we already noted, the main reasons of an adnexitis which cause inflammatory process it is infections which affect both men, and women: chlamydias (Yokhlamidioz), mycoplasmas (mycoplasmosis), ureaplasmas.
There are many ways of penetration of an infection to uterine tubes, but as it is regrettable, most often infection occurs during medical gynecologic manipulations: abortion, introduction of intrauterine contraceptives. Nevertheless, it is impossible to charge-off also transfer of infections sexually during sexual contact.
Infections get into uterine tubes not at once, and on mucous vaginas. From there it can be already carried on appendages what certain conditions are necessary for. Besides, not at each woman hit of an infection in a vagina inevitably attracts an adnexitis.
In this regard it is possible to speak about the indirect reasons of an adnexitis, that is factors which increase predisposition of a female organism to development of infections. Widespread problems of way of life of the modern woman are among these factors: frequent stresses, a lack of personal hygiene, overcooling of an organism, the addictions and other actions reducing immunity.
Though sometimes adnexitis symptoms are practically not shown at initial stages of inflammatory process, nevertheless in most cases existence of a disease gives itself pains in the lower part of a stomach with right or on the left side. And the woman can feel pain also in sacral or lumbar department of a backbone where it is given.
How it is frequent and with what force adnexitis symptoms are shown, directly depends on disease. In an acute form atypical allocations in a vagina only sometimes can be found. Much more often the patient just general deterioration in health against the increased temperature comes. Also many other inflammatory diseases of female generative organs prove.
If the patient does not receive appropriate treatment of an adnexitis, then it becomes chronic. It is expressed that symptoms of an adnexitis are shown more often and is more notable. It is noted that changes in a menstrual cycle happen how the disease passes into a chronic form. According to the statistics over 50% of women to whom made the diagnosis an adnexitis had disturbances of a cycle of periods.
To say that allocations during periods always plentiful or on the contrary scanty are not necessary. Different women can have return manifestations, but that is characteristic practically of any patient, so it is severe menstrual pains.
That in an organism of the woman inflammatory process develops relatives can recognize also by change of her mental and emotional state. Periodic pains lead to the fact that at the patient the sleep is interrupted, irritability increases. As symptoms of an adnexitis are shown also during sexual intercourse, existence of pain reduces the woman's inclination to the man. Respectively disturbance of sexual function – one more of signs.
Treatment of an adnexitis
It is worth beginning the description of treatment of this disease with the prevention: independent attempts practically never lead to treatment and only for a while reduce adnexitis symptoms. After a while they appear with a new force, but at the address to the doctor it can already turn out that the illness passed into a chronic form.
Treatment of an adnexitis is divided on conservative and operational. The first is considered effective in an acute form. The only cases when the doctor decides on operation at an acute form, the rupture of a pyosalpinx and absence of positive dynamics is during reception of antibacterial drugs and regular suction of purulent exudate.
In a chronic stage opposite, surgical treatment of an adnexitis is recognized rational as to it there are all indications. Or the patient saw doctors too late, and antibacterial therapy will not bring desirable results, or the chronic form turned out to be consequence of inefficiency of conservative treatment. In either case resort to operation.
Of course, in tasks of any woman who found in herself adnexitis symptoms enters as soon as possible to address the specialist. By results of survey, poll and laboratory researches after the diagnosis is precisely established, the doctor chooses a treatment method.
For a conservative method there are several options: antibacterial therapy, reception of anti-inflammatory drugs, reception of the desensibilizing drugs and reception of the anesthetizing drugs. All of them are used in different degree depending on testimonies of the patient.
If the adnexitis already passed into a chronic stage, then these methods not to manage though some of them all the same continue to use. For example, anesthetics are an integral part of any treatment as women, especially with an illness in a chronic stage, often complain of severe pains of which it is possible to get rid only using anesthetic.
Any operational treatment of an adnexitis is directed to removal of inflammatory educations. This surgery is rather difficult therefore the doctor decides on it, having only collected all necessary indications when conservative methods are powerless. Sometimes decide on a surgical method if inflammatory educations in appendages were found during other operation, then the decision on an occasion of their removal is urgently made.
Operation begins with studying of ratios in which there are bodies of a small pelvis. Then, after the surgeon estimated affected areas, one or both uterine tubes are excreted and then excised. It is carried out the most careful closing of defects of a visceral peritoneum. Further tubular drainages are brought to the place where there are tumorous educations. In end carry out a toilet of a peritoneum and layer-by-layer sew up a wound.
It is necessary to understand that in hands of the woman there is an opportunity to prevent operation if she sees a doctor as soon as she found the first symptoms of an adnexitis, and will not tighten to a chronic form.