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Motor aphasia (Brock's aphasia, afferent motor aphasia) is a state at which the person loses ability to apply words to expression of own thoughts, that is the speech. Forming of the speech at the person defines the left cerebral hemisphere. Owing to a stroke or severe craniocereberal injuries of its function can be broken, and the full or partial alalia becomes result.
How motor aphasia is shown?
Complete or partial aphasia is a symptom of neurologic character. Development of aphasia happens if the frontal lobe of the left parencephalon is affected by pathological process. The reasons of such phenomenon — severe injuries, strokes, etc. At motor aphasia speech activity of the patient can be slowed down, unsaturated. At the person very bad articulation because of what people around understand him badly is noted. Heavy motor aphasia of Brock sometimes conducts to the fact that it is difficult for patient to utter and combine sounds. Some people are capable to make only absolutely unclear surrounding sounds. Recovery of the speech at motor aphasia depends on weight of defeat and features of a disease which provoked this symptom. Sometimes for this purpose rather regularly to do special exercises.
The person at whom rather slight afferent motor aphasia is noted often says offers which consist only of verbs and nouns, at the same time without using auxiliary parts of speech. In the offers made by them the word order often is broken, words are used in irregular shape, without corresponding to the word standing nearby. The speech often remains informative, but at the same time the impression of her full illiteracy is made. The person can squeeze words which he just heard in offers, to repeat the same words. Except the speech reading, the letter is broken, the patient is often incapable to call objects.
At the heavy course of an illness of people can say only unclear sounds or communicate only with the help of the words "yes" and "no". At the same time he understands the oral speech turned to it.
Patients with aphasia sometimes show also changes in an emotional state. They can fall into a depression, cry, despair often. If other forms of aphasia can lead to the fact that the person does not understand own state, then at motor aphasia of the patient understands what happens to it. Therefore such patients mainly reluctantly carry on talk.
Among neurologic manifestations by which motor aphasia is followed, it should be noted manifestation of weakness of face muscles on the one hand, sometimes muscles can be completely paralyzed. Some movements with participation of face muscles, throats, a mouth can be unavailable to the patient in such state. The field of vision of the patient can differ from usual borders.
Except motor aphasia in medicine the following types of aphasias are defined: touch, anamnestic, semantic and dynamic.
At dynamic aphasia so-called defect of a speech initiative is observed. The expressed disturbances of an initiative of the speech, the spontaneous narrative speech are observed. The person often is silent, though understands the speech of surrounding people.
Akustiko-gnostichesky touch aphasia arises at defeat of a back third of the left hemisphere. This frustration can also arise at the patient after a stroke. At touch aphasia undifferentiation of a phoneme of the sound speech is observed. The person does not control own speech, does not understand what is told by other people. People with such frustration can be perceived as mentally sick.
Anamnestic aphasia is shown by ability disturbance to accurately call objects. At the same time the patient has ability to describe these objects. Reading and understanding of the speech is not broken.
Semantic aphasia manifestations of disturbances of understanding of the speech which is connected with the space relations. The person cannot logically understand and grammatical difficult speech structures.
Thus, patients with aphasia can have a number of the difficulties connected with this symptom. It is difficult for them to understand what tell people around about, to express the desires and aspirations, to write, read. Therefore, in everyday life such people can suffer from loneliness and isolation.
Why motor aphasia is shown?
Most often at the person total aphasia after a stroke is shown. Owing to an ischemic stroke upper parts of the central artery of a brain are surprised. It, in turn, defines disturbances of speech activity.
Motor aphasia is shown owing to various damages of a brain. Formations of a brain, brain abscesses, intracraneal hemorrhages, etc. can provoke development of this symptom. In more exceptional cases motor aphasia is shown at encephalitis, leukoencephalites, the Peak illness.
Extensive aphasia arises at serious injuries of a brain of the person.
How to cure motor aphasia?
To completely recover the speech at aphasia which was provoked by a stroke or a serious craniocereberal injury, in most cases difficult. Nevertheless, the correct treatment of aphasia after a stroke and the subsequent rehabilitation in many cases allows to return communicative abilities.
If at the patient this symptom is shown, then initially it is necessary to conduct comprehensive examination of aphasia, to define what became the reason of manifestation of this symptom. As a rule, it is impossible to recover the speech of the patient with aphasia for a short span. Sometimes for this purpose several years are required. Efficiency of recovery depends on a number of factors. First of all, the reason which led to manifestation of this symptom, and also weight of damage, an arrangement of a site of a brain which was injured the general state of health of the person and his age is important.
If motor aphasia develops owing to the had stroke, then in a week after a stroke on condition of favorable development of the situation it is necessary to begin to talk to the person. But at the same time it is always necessary to remember that the patient in such state is extraordinary weakened. Therefore it is necessary to talk to it every day for no more than five minutes. Gradually such occupations become more long.
If at the person easy disturbance of the speech is noted, then it is necessary to speak with it distinctly, accurately, but at the same time to lift only those subjects which cause positive emotions in the person. It is not necessary to encourage the patient if he tries to use in communication only gestures and a mimicry instead of the speech. It is necessary to do everything to stimulate the patient to a pronunciation of words.
At heavier degree of aphasia of this type of the patient it is not always capable to say at least a syllable. In that case the serial account, singing, that is that speech activity which is most automated is considered the most effective trainings of the speech. Initially sick it is regularly necessary to sing the familiar song, later — to encourage and stimulate all its attempts of singing or repetition of the text even if they will be not too distinct.
There are many practical exercises by means of which the person having motor aphasia can gradually recover the speech. Never it is necessary to force events, trying to obtain purity of a pronunciation and clearness of sounds. Therefore constantly it is not necessary to correct all words which were pronounced by the patient.
At communication with the person who has aphasia it is necessary to show tolerance and tolerance. Never it is necessary to equate problems with speech activity to mental retardation and to talk to the patient as with the innocent child or with mentally sick.
Close people of the patient are recommended to simplify as much as possible those offers which are turned to the person if it is necessary, several times to repeat important phrases. It is important always to try to involve the sick person in conversation and to stimulate him to conversation.
Modern physicians widely practice the methods based on use of opportunities of computers that allows to be engaged in exercises for recovery of the speech with the maximum effect.