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Albinism is a total or partial absence of a pigment of hair, skin, an eye iris of the eye; hereditary defect of pigmentation.
Now it is considered that blockade or lack of a certain enzyme – a tyrosinase, the melanin which is responsible for synthesis in an organism is a basic reason of emergence of such anomaly of development. Degree of a lack of a pigment depends on nature of disturbance in the genes responsible for its education. But there are also situations when in genes of pathologies it is not revealed, but the person all the same has albinism, in that case takes place to be a mutation of certain genes.
The medicine allocates a set of the types of albinism considering both a phenotype, and a genotype, however traditionally this pathology can be divided into two big groups: glazo-skin (GKA) and eye (HECTARE) type.
Treatment and prevention
Unfortunately, at the moment there is no means which could help to cope with shortage of melanin in skin and an iris of the eye of an eye. Eye albinism quite often is followed by visual disturbances (for example, squint) of which it is possible to get rid only in the surgical way, and also irreversible frustration, such as changes in a retina and nerves of an eye. Lack of melanin in skin represents not only an esthetic problem, but also increases risk of emergence of cancer educations. For the purpose of protection of an organism against sunshine (usually this function is carried out by melanin), the albino is recommended to use sun-protection creams with good filters, points or the darkened lenses.
Modern genetic researches of couple for the purpose of prevention of transfer of anomaly quite successfully reduce risks of development of albinism in children.
- Black mother from the African country of Mali reached two days clinic with the baby albino on hands. Mortality of white people in the African countries is much higher that is connected with high probability of emergence of skin new growths.
- On the island of Fiji the people having albinism always held authority and held the high-ranking positions in society.
- In the USA the union colourless" which asserts the rights of albinos in society was organized so-called ".
- Statistics of developing of albinism in the different countries different: average frequency of the European albinos makes 1 person on 20 000, in Nigeria – 1 on 3 000, and in Panama it is 1 on 132 inhabitants at all.