Allergic conjunctivitis

The concept "allergy" for the first time was used only at the beginning of the 20th century. On etymology the word means "other action", that is the immune system of the person unconventionally reacts to quite harmless irritants. Every year the number of inhabitants of our planet with various displays of an allergy increases, and allergic conjunctivitis – superfluous to that confirmation.

As a characteristic disease of the allergic nature, allergic conjunctivitis – an inflammation mucous which is caused by existence of a certain influence to which most of people does not react.

The modern medicine has enough means quickly to level the main displays of a disease in the form of a severe itch and reddening of eyes. Nevertheless, the inflammation mucous eyes can quite be shown in parallel with such diseases as dermatitis or bronchial asthma. In certain cases diagnosis is complicated by weak displays of a specific illness, against pronounced general symptoms. Therefore we will continue consideration by the overview of symptomatology.

Main symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis

In the beginning we will note that depending on the frequency of manifestation of symptoms, distinguish two types of a disease: year-round and seasonal. In the first case signs of existence of an inflammation are to some extent observed all the time, and in the second case are shown only in a specific season, most often in the spring. This fact served emergence of delusion that the main reasons of allergic conjunctivitis it is flower pollen and down of trees. Actually the list of allergens is much wider.

Irrespective of type of an illness, the main symptoms only three: reddening mucous, severe itch and plentiful dacryagogue. All symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis are very widespread and can quite be present at the patient both together, and separately. For small children the third sign, that is dacryagogue, or as it is called still, watery eyes is most strongly shown.

Different patients have force of manifestation of symptoms and time which passed from contact with allergen before emergence of the first symptoms of a disease, it is various. But, as a rule, this time makes from several hours to several days.

The allergens causing allergic conjunctivitis

We already mentioned that pollen and down of trees are only couple of irritants which cause symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. The complete list is much wider, both disputes of mushrooms, and household chemicals, and wool or dandruff of animals enter here.

Independently there is a medicinal allergy. The symptoms of a disease described above can be shown after use of some drugs, for example, of eye drops, during use of contact lenses, cosmetics or perfumery.

Such wide list of allergens just also leads to the fact that the disease can carry not seasonal, but year-round character. Besides, it partly complicates diagnosis as to determine specific allergen by a time happens quite difficult, and for this purpose use various methods of definition.

Diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis

Sometimes symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis do not leave to specialists of doubts concerning the diagnosis and definition of allergen. However, unfortunately, such situation meets rather seldom, and most often it is necessary to carry out allergy tests and the anamnestic analysis.

At three of four patients the anamnestic analysis gives the exact answer concerning the diagnosis and allergen which caused emergence of a disease. In the remained, fourth case, it is necessary to carry out eliminative and exposition test. They consist in a consecutive exception of hypothetical allergen (elimination) and short-term resuming of its action as soon as symptoms of an illness abate (exposure).

If allergic conjunctivitis proceeds not in an acute form, then use of skin tests is possible. At all simplicity and availability, this diagnostic method has rather high precision. If the disease is in an acute phase, then the most suitable diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis – laboratory researches. It is, in particular, about blood test on the content of immunoglobulin E and other tests. They are suitable for any period of course.

Prevention and treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

Лечение конъюктивитаPreventive measures at due approach can significantly reduce risk of emergence of a disease. The most important and general recommendation consists in avoiding of contact with allergen. At the same time, of course, you have to know accurately what causes reaction in you. If symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis are shown all the year round, you should not lay all blame on pollen of plants, and it is better to carry out an integrated analysis on definition of allergens.

Other preventive measures are directed to simplification of symptomatology and prevention of strengthening of the found manifestations. So, it is recommended not to comb eyelids at all, and it is even better not to touch the person. Prevention of allergic conjunctivitis consists also in protection of eyes. For this purpose it is possible to use sunglasses which can secure mucous not only against bright light, but also against hit of dust, pollen or other allergens.

As for treatment of a disease, many patients are inclined to simplify significantly this process, reducing it to fight against symptomatology that leads to deplorable effects up to transition to a chronic form.

Except the mentioned symptomatic treatment, the correct treatment of allergic conjunctivitis is also surely carried out on condition of full elimination of potential allergens and in the presence of an active immunotherapy.

Let's separately stop on an immunotherapy and fight against symptomatology. As immune therapy carry traditionally out hystoglobulin injections. The immunotherapy is carried out by courses, in each of which from 6 to 10 injections.

The symptomatic treatment of allergic conjunctivitis is carried out using antihistaminic drugs of the first and second generation. Most often it is drops which are appointed in case of a chronic and subacute form of a disease and which have positive effect in 10-15 minutes.

The main thing that needs to be remembered, is that treatment of allergic conjunctivitis should not turn into self-treatment at all. Without having sufficient knowledge you will not be able to appoint the drug adequate to symptoms. Besides, there is no guarantee that you will correctly make the diagnosis. Therefore definition of a disease and methods of controlling with it, it is better to entrust specialists.

Section: Allergology Diseases of eyes