Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis or allergic cold is an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity, arising at penetration of allergens into a human body at exhalation through a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity. The pollen of plants, house dust which in a large number is contained in carpets, books and other places acts as allergen. This disease is one of the most widespread in the world, for example, in Russia, according to the statistics, on rhinitis of an allergic origin suffers from 11 to 24% of the population.

The major factors causing allergic rhinitis are the allergens which are contained in air. They can be divided into three groups:

  • aeroallergens of external environment — pollen of plants;
  • aeroallergens of dwellings are the mites which are contained in house dust or hair of animals, insects, allergens of mold and barmy fungi, some house plants and food stuffs;
  • professional allergens.

Can be the starting moments: spicy food, stressful situations, overcooling of an organism, emotional overloads. Genetic predisposition can often be the cause.
In a form allergic rhinitis is divided into three classes:

  • seasonal (intermittent) allergic rhinitis — an allergy to emergence in air of pollen of bloomers and trees. As, pollen can spread wind to very long distances, completely it is impossible to avoid contact with it, there are chances to reduce danger.
  • year-round (persistent) allergic rhinitis – can develop all the year round. House dust rather the microscopic ticks living in dust or hair of some animals is the reason. Displays of year-round allergic rhinitis, are usually slightly weaker, than seasonal.
  • professional rhinitis on allergic irritants – arises at people in operating time in certain conditions, perhaps, develops also from dust, but more precisely the nature of its emergence is not studied.

On clinical manifestations allocate:

  • easy form which is insignificant and the patient can do without treatment;
  • moderately severe – in this case symptoms of allergic rhinitis can significantly worsen quality of life and disturb the patient;
  • severe form – the patient to be in a serious condition, cannot normally live and fully work or study, the illness interrupts a sleep.

Symptoms of allergic rhinitis

First of all, speaking about symptoms of allergic rhinitis, we have to list signs which cannot be disregarded and it is necessary to see a doctor:

  • the itch which is often arising during the day in a nose;
  • sneezing, often pristupoobrazny character;
  • the nose congestion, cold amplifying at night;
  • watery allocations from a nose, in a case accession of an infection can accept mucopurulent character;
  • nasopharynx hypostasis, loss of sense of smell;
  • pristupoobrazny cough and irritation in a throat;
  • reddening of eyes and suppuration, sometimes appear circles or hypostases under eyes.

Reception of antihistaminic drugs usually, facilitates a condition of the patient.

These symptoms of allergic rhinitis are not unique only for this disease. Similar signs have all rhinitises, each of which demands a certain treatment and therefore carrying out exact diagnosis by the specialist allergist is reasonable.

Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis

Диагностика аллергического ринитаFor confirmation of the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis it is necessary to carry out the analysis of a smear from a nose on eosinophils. Existence of eosinophils in a smear more than 5% of all found cells, indicates the allergic reason of a congestion of a nose.

Further specification of the diagnosis, requires identification of that substance which causes symptoms and is the reason of allergic rhinitis — causal and significant allergen.

Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis has two versions: statement of skin tests and special blood test.

Statement of skin tests. The indispensable condition – in 5 days is cancelled reception of any antihistaminic drugs and age of the patient from 4 to 50 years. Several small cuts in which 1-2 drops of a certain allergen are dripped are applied on a forearm. After a while (15-30 minutes) inspection and measurement of the appeared bubble is performed. Skin test – one of reliable, widespread and economic types of diagnosis of an allergy. The test is not carried out pregnant and nursing.

Blood test the general on specific IgE-specific immunoglobulins. Level of the general IgE at the time of the birth of the person about zero and gradually increases in process of a growing. At the adult the indicator is higher than 100 — 150 PIECES/l it is considered raised. The method is not especially widespread on the reason of high cost of research, the cost of the panel of allergens reaches 16 thousand rubles. One more minus – unauthenticity, often gives false positive results.

With those allergens which gave positive skin reaction carry in addition out the intranasal provocative test. Such diagnosis of allergic rhinitis consists in provocation of an organism on reaction. For this purpose enter 2 — 3 drops of the distilled water into one nostril, then step by step increase concentration of the tested allergen: 1:100, 1:10 and whole solution. If in 15-20 minutes there was a reaction – a congestion, sneezing, burning, cold, the test is considered positive.

Carrying out researches to radioallergosorbent, radio immune, immunoenzyme or hemolyuminestsentny methods, however, in view of high cost is possible, these methods were not widely used.

Treatment of allergic rhinitis

Treatment consists in removal of an allergic inflammation mucous and carrying out allergenospetsifichesky therapy.

At easy and average forms of allergic rhinitis antihistaminic therapy is applied, it is more preferable drugs of the second (klaritin, tsetrin, zodak) or the third (zirtek, telfast, erius) than generation. Are appointed inside once a day according to the recommended age dosages. Duration of reception is not less than 2 weeks.

If treatment of allergic rhinitis does not give due effect, appoint derivatives of a kromoglikat of sodium (kromogeksat, kromoglin, kromosol). Drugs are issued in the form of sprays, the notable effect is swept up not earlier than in 5-10 days.

In case of heavy disease the nasal corticosteroids (Aldetsin, to Bekonaza, Benarin, Nazoneks, to Fliksonaza, Nazarel, etc.) which are issued in the form of sprays are appointed. Duration of treatment is established by the attending physician.

To the patients having contraindications to these medicines allergen - a specific immunotherapy is appointed. Treatment is carried out by the allergist in the conditions of a hospital. The sense of treatment consists in maintaining small doses of allergen which gradually increase, it development of tolerance of an organism to allergen tries to obtain. At the same time try to facilitate symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

The suffering allergic rhinitis it is necessary to know that it is necessary to carry out treatment, even in mild cases, otherwise, the illness can take new, more severe forms, such as, for example, bronchial asthma.

Section: Allergology