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Allergy – hypersensitivity of immune system of an organism to influence of some factors of environment called by allergens. Allergic reaction can arise on any substance which was earlier sensibilizing an organism at its repeated influence. Long or frequent penetration into an allergen organism, causes the accelerated reaction to foreign substance, and leads to development of allergic diseases.
The term "allergy" was for the first time used in 1906 by the Austrian pediatrician To. Tuberculine test. The term designated the changed, unusual reaction of an organism to the antidiphtherial serum entered to children in the medical and preventive purposes. Later the term "allergy" got broader designation. But long before classification of an allergy as individual disease the diseases caused by allergens were described: hay fever, intolerance of foodstuff.
Today 20% of the population of the planet suffer from an allergy. The disease tends to growth, over the last 50 years cases of allergic diseases considerably became frequent. High rates of development of chemical industry, broad and almost uncontrolled use of antibiotics, the use in use of a large amount of production and household substances, such as synthetic polymeric materials, dyes, preservatives, chemical detergents and other substances capable to be allergens are the reasons of such growth.
The illness develops not in all cases of contact of an organism with allergen. The large role in developing of a disease is played by a hereditary factor. At the same time not the allergic disease, but predisposition of an organism is inherited to answer with the increased reaction to some substances. At the child whose parents have an allergic disease reaction to allergen is shown in other form other than parents. In families where both parents have tendency to an allergy, probability of developing of a disease of 70% if only one of parents – 50% is ill. Except heredity the significant contribution to development of allergic diseases is made a condition of an endocrine and nervous system.
Various substances and connections both the simple bromine or iodine and complex – proteins, polysaccharides and their combination can be allergens. Distinguish allergens exogenous, that is getting to an organism from the outside, and endogenous which are formed in the organism. Depending on group of allergens various reactions and allergic diseases demanding timely and correct treatment develop.
The substances causing allergic reaction at hit in an organism or contact with it can be both an infectious, and noninfectious origin. Exogenous allergens which hit in an organism causes damage to bodies and systems are divided into several groups.
- Biological allergens. Microbes, viruses, fungi, helminths, serumal and vaccinal drugs belong to this group. The diseases caused by biological allergens carry to group of infectious and allergic. The infection center in an organism – carious teeth, cholecystitis, inflammatory processes of upper respiratory tracts can be a source of an illness. Helminthosis acts as allergen in connection with hit in blood of decomposition products and activity of helminths, there is a reaction at organism intoxication.
- Household allergens. This group includes the house dust, dust mites, fungi which are formed in crude rooms, parts of domestic insects. At hit in an organism through respiratory tracts they cause such allergic diseases as allergic (vasculomotor) cold, bronchial asthma.
- Reaction and to epidermal allergens – hair, wool and dandruff of animals is observed. Cases of emergence of reaction to household chemicals, and in particular on laundry detergents and detergents became frequent.
- Pollen exogenous allergens. Allergic reactions to pollen of plants the most widespread. The pollen of some species of anemogamous plants which is not exceeding in the diameter of 35 microns possesses allergenic properties. There are symptoms of pollinoses – conjunctivitis, cold, puffiness, skin rashes. Set of such reactions is called hay fever. The strongest pollen allergen is pollen of a weed plant of an ambrosia. For the purpose of prevention of an allergy carry out annual mass destruction of this plant.
- Food-borne allergens. It is possible to carry to this group practically all foodstuff. More often than others food allergy such products cause milk, eggs, meat, fish, tomatoes, a citrus, chocolate, strawberry and crayfish. At allergen hit the digestive tract appears vomiting, a diarrhea, and later allergy symptoms – urticaria, fever. At children food allergy is shown in case of an overfeeding, its sign of rash, diathesis. In certain cases the intolerance of some products is not allergic reaction. It is connected with a lack of some enzymes of a gastric juice that leads to disturbances in work of the alimentary system similar to food allergy.
- Industrial allergens. Reactions to this group of substances are shown in the form of damages of skin – allergic professional contact dermatitis. Turpentine, mineral oils, nickel, chrome, arsenic, tar, tannins, varnishes, insectofungicides belong to such allergens. Also in certain cases substances which part they are bakelite, the formalin, urea, epoxies, detergents, aminobenzene derivative of quinoline, benzene chloride act as allergens of industrial group. Often allergic reaction arises on cosmetics with chemical composition these are dyes for hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, perfumery substances, shampoos and others. The allergy can arise at long contact with any of industrial substances therefore it often arises at the people working at the enterprises of the chemical industry.
- Medicinal allergens. Allergic reaction can arise on any medicine, in each case various reactions develop, all four types of hypersensitivity of immune system on drugs are provided. Reaction arises only after obligatory presensitization of an organism, and the hidden sensitization is possible. The medicinal allergy differs in the expressed polymorphism of manifestations, sudden development, the increasing weight of symptoms. Weight of reaction is not connected with a dose of the drug which caused reaction. The acute anaphylaxis, bronchial asthma, the small tortoiseshell, a Quincke's edema, allergic rhinitis as reaction to penicillin, analginum, novocaine, vitamins can develop. The serum disease arises at influence of antibiotics, streptocides, hormones, the drugs containing nitrofuran derivatives. Hemolitic reactions cause drugs of a pyrazolon row. Development of slow allergic reactions, such as contact dermatitis is possible.
In certain cases as allergens fabrics of the organism of fabric of lens, a myelin of nervous tissue, tissue of a thyroid gland and testicles can act. The special group of endogenous allergens is made by physical factors at which in an organism the substances causing an allergic disease are formed. Such factors can be warm, cold, mechanical irritation, a burn, beam influence and products of influence of microbes or viruses with body tissues. Under the influence of external factors in an organism proteins with the changed confirmation on which there is an allergic reaction are produced. Such changes can arise also at some diseases, the most frequent reactions at a pseudorheumatism, a system lupus erythematosus, autoimmune diseases.
Treatment of an allergy
Treatment of an allergy is directed to decrease in sensitivity of an organism on allergen at its repeated introduction in the mezhpristupny period. The method is based that numerous, gradual introduction to an allergen organism in the increasing doses causes formation of special blocking antibodies. These antibodies connect allergen and prevent its contact with allergic antibodies and consequently do not allow to arise allergic reaction and damage of cells. Such technique of treatment is quite effective, in certain cases it is possible to get rid of an allergy forever, but it is more often simple to weaken reaction to allergen. National methods of treatment of an allergy and allergic diseases possess softer action. But many of them have manifestations with which traditional medicine will cope cannot therefore it is used as a symptomatic treatment.
One of the first symptoms of an allergy which will respond to nonconventional treatment is allergic cold. It can be considered as a neuroreflex disease, or local anaphylactic reaction to allergen. The slightest irritation of nerve terminations of a nasal cavity leads to rough reaction of a mucous membrane of a nose. Reaction can be caused by a pungent smell, pyltsovy and household allergens. As symptoms of an allergy appear watery and mucous allocations, sneezing, a congestion of the nasal courses, but there is no inflammatory process in a mucous membrane, as allergic cold is called. Vasculomotor cold can be seasonal – hay cold, or year-round vasculomotor allergic rhinitis.
For drug treatment of allergic cold use drugs of calcium and antihistaminic drugs – a Dimedrol, Pipolphenum, Suprastinum. Treatment by nonconventional medicine gives a positive effect at reception of broths of medicinal herbs. The allergic cold caused by household allergen well is treated by broth in structure which the St. John's Wort enters. For preparation of broth take 5 parts of a St. John's Wort, 4 parts of a centaury, 3 parts of a root of a dandelion, and by 1 part of a horsetail field, camomiles pharmaceutical and corn a rylets. Plants fill in with a glass of cold water and bring to boiling, having insisted 1 hour, use 1/3 glasses 3 times a day.
At hay cold it is recommended to rinse a throat and to wash out the nasal courses weak infusion of a motherwort or clear water. This procedure should be carried out after each exit to the street.
The allergic disease arises at hit in an organism of some medicines, stings of insects, influences of physical factors. It is characterized by an enanthesis of pruritic blisters which represent hypostasis of a papillary layer of skin. Medicamentally the small tortoiseshell is treated by antihistaminic drugs. In hard cases apply glucocorticoid means. After stopping of acute manifestation carry out desensitization. National methods of treatment of an allergy apply as topical treatment and krovoochistitelny means.
Positive action at urticaria and other allergic rashes infusion to the deadnettle, in the people called by a deaf nettle possesses. For infusion preparation 1 tablespoon of flowers to a deadnettle is filled in with a glass of abrupt boiled water, insisted, having wrapped up 20 minutes. Drink infusion 4 times a day on ½ glasses, or on 1 glass of broth three times a day.
Similar action the grass of a train three-separate possesses, infusion is prepared from 4 tablespoons of the crushed grass on boiled water liter, drunk as well as infusion to a deadnettle, on ½ glasses 4 times a day.
For simplification of a condition of skin use bathtubs with broth of a Labrador tea marsh. 1 liter of broth or infusion of a Labrador tea on a water bathtub. Such bathtubs help to get rid of pruritic rashes quicker.
In traditional medicine at a severe allergy apply quality mummies. It possesses fast action at a severe allergy, removes hypostases of a mucous membrane of a throat, thereby prevents edematization of Quincke. Qualitative the mummy is dissolved without deposit, solution use in a proportion 1 g of a mummy on 1 liter of warm water. It is necessary to accept solution once a day, washing down with milk. To children of preschool age the dose should not exceed 70 ml. for adults and children 8 years a daily dose of 100 ml are more senior. Treatment of an allergy is carried out by courses on 20 days twice a year.
Antiallergenic properties such plants as a birch drooping, a centaurea meadow, a nettle gonochoristic, a dandelion medicinal, a horsetail field, chicory ordinary, a licorice naked possess. Infusions and decoctions of collecting from these herbs can stop allergic reactions. But does not follow, will apply folk remedies before consultation with specialists. As the allergy can be shown by strong reactions which demand acute management. In particular some symptoms of an allergy lead to an acute anaphylaxis. Such allergic diseases as a Quincke's edema and a pollinosis at defeat can cause shock of pyltsovy or medicinal allergen.
Quincke's edema (Quincke's disease)
The disease proceeds very hard with the expressed asthma, in connection with a Quincke's disease of the throat extending to a throat, skin, hypodermic and mucous membranes. The first symptoms of hypostasis are the hoarse voice barking cough, a zatrudnennost of a breath and an exhalation, an asthma.
Then stidor breath quickly develops, the person becomes cyanochroic, then turns pale. The patient demands acute management, up to a tracheostomy as there can occur the death owing to asphyxia. In certain cases hypostases arise on a mucous membrane of a digestive tract or on a meninx. In this case the headache, spasms, vomiting are observed. There can be an acute anaphylaxis.
The disease of acute conjunctivitis, rhinitis, acute inflammation of respiratory tracts is shown. Often there is cross food allergy. At emergence of a pollinosis after use of medicines the acute anaphylaxis can be observed. Most often such reaction arises without presensitization, at the first administration of medicine. Unlike other allergic reactions to drugs at a pollinosis the large role is played by a dose of the medicine which caused reaction.
The allergic disease develops in 1-2 weeks after administration of horse serum which is a part of antitetanic serum. Symptoms of an allergy accrue quickly, involving many systems and body. There are a high temperature, a lymphadenopathy, skin polymorphic rashes, a bronchospasm and acute emphysema of lungs leading to an acute anaphylaxis. Often there is hemolitic anemia, damage of mucous membranes and joints.
Symptoms of an acute anaphylaxis is the whistling sound at breath, rattles, constraint in breasts and the complicated breath – similar to asthma attack. At development of shock of the patient feels a panic attack of fear, pain in heart, a sonitus, nausea. After that there comes the loss of consciousness and spasms.
Prevention of an allergy
At different people the allergy arises on different substances therefore prevention of an allergy for each patient has to be especially indvidualny. At reaction to household allergens it is necessary to establish houses the conditioner which perfectly purifies air of dust and various parts. Without fail it is necessary to get rid of carpets and other soft coverings which incorporate dust. Also it is necessary to reduce quantity of upholstered furniture to a minimum. At reaction to epidermal allergens it is not necessary to hold houses of animals if there is no opportunity to get rid of a cat or a dog, it is necessary to isolate from them the bedroom and not to contact to an animal.
Working with substances on which there is an allergic reaction it is necessary to use a mask or a respirator, gloves. In the house there shall be a humidifier and small protivopyltsovy grids at windows. At tendency to hay fever it is not necessary to go outside in windy dry weather. The best decision will be to replace the residence with a season of blossoming of anemogamous plants if there is no such opportunity to leave to walk it is possible, we will only wound in the morning and late at night.
The medicinal allergy also demands prevention, surely report to medical personnel about earlier shown reactions to any drugs, no matter there were it antibiotics or vitamins. Also it is necessary to inform the doctor of existence of allergic diseases at parents. Methods of prevention the immunotherapy is important.
It is possible to strengthen immune system and by means of folk remedies. The nonconventional medicine applies to strengthening of immunity of allergic persons therapy by fruit and vegetable juice. Juice helps to get rid of slags and to clear an organism, and a large amount of the vitamins and enzymes which are contained in them strengthens health. Citrus juice and fruit diets in a complex with clearing enemas give good effect. During such cleaning from an organism the toxic lymph is removed and it is replaced with alkalizing liquid. The important point is a hardening of an organism, it gives the chance to avoid allergic reactions to endogenous allergens.