Alprazolam

Алпразолам Drug photo

The description is actual on 30.12.2014

  • Latin name: Alprazolam
  • ATH code: N05BA12
  • Active ingredient: Alprazolam (Alprazolam)
  • Producer: State plant of medical drugs/scientific research institute OHT, scientific Research Institute of organic chemistry and technology, Organic chemistry (Russia)

Structure

Alprazolam is the crystal powder of white color possessing fine solubility in methanol or ethanol, but is dissolved in water at physiological level rn. Each tablet is intended for oral administration and contains 0,25, 0,5, 1 or 2 mg of active ingredient of an alprazolam.

Auxiliary ingredients:

  • lactoses monohydrate;
  • starch corn;
  • sodium benzoate;
  • cellulose microcrystallic;
  • silicon dioxide colloid;
  • povidone;
  • sodium docusate;
  • magnesium stearate.

Release form

  • tablets 0.25mg;
  • tablets of 0.5 mg;
  • tablets of 1 mg;
  • tablets of 2 mg.

Pharmacological action

Alprazolam possesses antidepressive, somnolent, tranquilizing, myorelaxation central, antiepileptic action. Therefore it is appointed for treatment of elimination of concern, a muscular relaxation.

Also drug possesses anticonvulsant activity and moderate drowses. Under the influence of medicine at the patient backfilling time is shortened, and dream duration, on the contrary, increases with almost complete elimination of night prosypaniye.

Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics

Agents of a class 1,4 benzodiazepines render to TsNS the effects by linkng with a stereo specific receptors on several sites of the central nervous system. Clinically all benzodiazepines cause a dozozavisimost of the central nervous system therefore they are always appointed carefully.

Absorption: after oral administration Alprazolam is easily absorbed. Peak concentration in plasma are reached from 1 to 2 hours after introduction. Plasma levels are proportional to a dose of active agent. In the range of doses from 0,5 to 3 mg peak levels from 8 to 37 ng/ml were observed.

Distribution: active agent of this drug contacts in number of nearly 80 percent protein in blood serum of the person. The greatest share of binding metabolism/elimination is the share of a seralbumin.

Alprazolam is actively metabolized in a human body, first of all in P450 3A4 cytochrome (CYP3A4) and two main metabolites in plasma: 4-hydroxyAlprazolam and α-hydroxyAlprazolam. Concentration in plasma 4-hydroxyAlprazolam and α hydroxyAlprazolam-in relation to invariable concentration of Alprazolam is always 4% less. Active ingredient and its metabolites is removed from an organism mainly with urine.

Indications to Alprazolam's use

Tablets Alprazolam are appointed for treatment of panic frustration with or without agoraphobia.

Panic frustration is characterized by the repeating unexpected panic attacks, i.e. the discrete periods of intensive fear or discomfort, at least with four (or more) the symptoms developing suddenly and reaching peak within 10 next minutes:

  • the accelerated heart rate;
  • perspiration;
  • shiver or stirrings;
  • feelings of the complicated breath;
  • feeling of asthma;
  • stethalgia or discomfort in a thorax;
  • nausea or abdominal distress;
  • feeling of dizziness, instability, loss of coordination or syncope;
  • paresthesia (numbness or feelings of a pricking);
  • fever or inflow.

Attention: the doctor who makes the decision to use this drug for more than 8 weeks has to revise regularly indications to Alprazolam's use and carry out revaluation of usefulness of drug for a certain patient.

Contraindications

Tablets Alprazolam are contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to this drug or other benzodiazepines, and also the excipients which are a part of this drug.

These tablets can be used for treatment of patients with an open angle glaucoma, but are contraindicated to patients with an acute form of a disease.

Side effects

Information which is contained in subsection about side effects of tablets Alprazolam is based on the integrated these placebos - controlled 5, 6 and 8-week clinical trials of the patients suffering from panic frustration.

Frustration of a nervous system:

The following data were obtained during research of the patients passing treatment with Alprazolam's use for 6, 8 weeks:

Disturbances of a nervous system:

  • memory impairment;
  • dysarthtia;
  • lack of coordination;
  • mental disturbances;
  • ataxy;
  • disturbance of attention;
  • paresthesia;
  • dyskinesia;
  • hypesthesia;
  • excessive drowsiness.

Infections and invasions:

  • flu;
  • upper respiratory tract infections.

Mental disorders:

  • depression;
  • decrease in a libido;
  • disorientation;
  • confused consciousness;
  • the suppressed mood;
  • constant feeling of alarm.

Disbolism and food:

  • appetite reduction;
  • increase in appetite;
  • anorexia.

Disturbance of activity of a gastrointestinal tract:

  • dryness in a mouth;
  • lock;
  • nausea.

Disturbances from reproductive system:

Disturbances of a musculoskeletal system and connecting fabric:

  • joint pain;
  • muscle pain;
  • extremity pain.

Vascular frustration:

  • inflow.

Respiratory disturbances:

  • asthma;
  • cold is allergic.

Diseases of skin and hypodermic cellulose:

At Alprazolam's reception there are also other side reactions which are observed extremely seldom, and therefore are specified only in highly specialized literature. It is worth paying attention that the side effects provided below occur at 1 patient from 100.

Disturbance of activity of CCC:

  • frequent: cardiopalmus;
  • infrequent: sinus tachycardia.

Disturbance of activity of ENT organs:

  • frequent: Vertigo;
  • infrequent: a ring in ears, ear pain.

Diseases of eyes:

  • frequent: sight illegibility;
  • infrequent: expansion of pupils, photophobia.

Gastrointestinal frustration:

  • frequent: diarrhea, vomiting, dyspepsia, abdominal pain;
  • infrequent: dysphagy, hypersecretion of sialadens.

General disturbances:

  • frequent: indisposition, weakness, stethalgias;
  • infrequent: a hyperthermia, thirst, an acute reaction on heat and cold, hypostasis, feeling of a nervous tension, slackness, weakness, feeling of intoxication, constraint in a breast, loss of control over extremities.

Disturbances of a musculoskeletal system and connecting fabric:

  • frequent: pain in spin, spasms, muscular twitchings.

Mental disorders:

  • frequent: irritability, sleeplessness, nervousness, derealization, increase of a libido, concern, excitement, depersonalization;
  • infrequent: apathy, aggression, anger, euphoric mood, Logorrhea, differences of mood, dysphonia, hallucinations, tendency to a suicide, hypomania, psychomotor block.

Disturbances of urinary tract:

  • frequent: difficulties at an urination;
  • infrequent: frequent urination, urine incontience.

Respiratory disturbances:

  • frequent: nose congestion, hyperventilation;
  • infrequent: feeling of asthma, nasal, cold.

Diseases of skin and hypodermic cellulose:

  • frequent: increase sweating;
  • infrequent: rash, urticaria.

Alprazolam, application instruction

In the application instruction of Alprazolam it is specified that medicine is appointed for oral administration by 2-3 times a day. Reception of this medicine is not attached to meal. Doses are selected individually attending physician depending on symptomatology degree of manifestation, and also reaction of the patient to drug.

At the first stage of treatment drug is appointed in the minimum doses — 0.25-0.5 mg/days with the subsequent increase. It is recommended to raise a drug dose gradually in evening and after in the afternoon.

To elderly people 2ili 3 times a day recommend to appoint a dose of 0.25 mg. If necessary afterwards doses can be raised to 0.5-0.75 mg/days, but to do it it is necessary carefully, previously having established degree of portability of drug.

At treatment of alarming states the dose of drug makes 0.75-1.5 mg.

At treatment of panic frustration the dose of drug is appointed in number of 0.5 mg 3 times a day.

Overdose

Overdose by Alprazolam is shown in drowsiness, confusion of consciousness, a lack of coordination, decrease in reflexes, a coma. In certain cases deliberate overdose by this medicine can lead to a lethal outcome. Overdose with death was registered at patients who took medicine in a combination with benzodiazepines, by alcohol (the blood alcohol level was much lower, than the extent of alcoholization leading to a lethal outcome).

Interaction with other medicines

Alprazolam at a concomitant use with other medicines can provoke manifestation of various reactions including negative.

  • Anticonvulsant drugs in a combination with this medicine provoke strengthening of the oppressing impact of active ingredient on TsNS.
  • Dextropropoxyphene together with Alprazolam oppresses the central nervous system.
  • Blockers histamine H1 receptors at a concomitant use with this medicine provoke strengthening of the oppressing effect of active agent to TsNS.
  • Ethanol and Alprazolamom has the oppressing effect on TsNS.
  • fluvoksamin promotes increase of concentration in a blood plasma of active agent.
  • At a concomitant use of medicine with Fluoxetine increase in concentration of an alprazolam in a blood plasma is probable.
  • Digoxin can provoke development of intoxication by cardiac glycosides.
  • Blockers histamine H2 receptors provoke decrease in clearance of an alprazolam.
  • Psychotropic drugs make active impact on TsNS.

Terms of sale

Medicine is released in drugstores without recipe of the doctor.

Storage conditions

Alprazolam it is necessary to store in the dark place at a temperature not over 30C Celsius far from humidity.

Attention: this drug is potentially hazardous to health of a children's organism.

Period of validity

The period of validity of drug makes 60 months. After this period it is not recommended to use medicine.

Alprazolam's analogs

Main synonyms and Alprazolam's analogs:

  • Alzolam;
  • Alproks;
  • Zolomaks;
  • Kassadan;
  • Kassadan;
  • Ksanaks;
  • Neurol;
  • Neurol;
  • Frontin;
  • Heleks.

About Alprazolam

Responses of doctors speak about a positive effect which this drug renders at correctly organized treatment. About Alprazolam at forums from patients also confirm this information. Here, for example:

Alina: "The loved one died and for me it was big shock. After a while the syndrome of an alarming state developed and began to think that I go crazy as could not sleep, is, to react to something normally. The doctor wrote out Alprazolam, and gradually after several weeks of reception the desire to live returned to me and I began to react to everything more or less normally. Now still I drink drug and I do not observe any side effects".

Olga: "In connection with specifics of the work I began to notice long ago that my mental state leaves much to be desired. I began a terrible depression, began to get rid on the family and finally understood that it is necessary to see a doctor. The doctor registered Alprazolam and I began to accept him all a week ago, but I already feel improvement. Drug excellent".

Section: For a nervous system
in more detail

Education: East Kazakhstan state university of S. Amanzholov, Ust-Kamenogorsk. Specialty "Valueology".

PAY ATTENTION! Information on drugs on the website is help generalizing, collected from public sources and can form the basis for making decision on use of medicines it is not aware of treatment. Before medicine use Alprazolam surely consult with the attending physician.