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This means represents antiviral and at the same time antiparkinsonichesky drug. On the chemical structure substance is a tricyclic aminoadamantan.
Amantadin let out in the form of sulfate, a glucuronide or a hydrochloride. The hydrochloride represents large crystal powder, white or white with a yellow shade. Connection is well soluble in water and alcohols, is practically not dissolved on air.
For the first time as antiviral drug Amantadin used in the 67th year of the 20th century. After a while its efficiency in treatment of an illness of Parkinson was found. The case when by means of this medicine it was succeeded to cure rage (Milwaukee protocol) is known. The patient was entered into an artificial coma and 7 days later analyses showed absence of a virus.
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
The mechanism of action of Amantadin is not up to the end studied. It is supposed that medicine stimulates processes of removal of dopamine of its neyronalny depots, thereby raising degree of sensitivity of specific receptors to this neuromediator. Owing to what if there is a decrease in intensity of production of dopamine in basal gangliya, drug creates the conditions normalizing neurophysiological processes. There is an opinion that in addition lek. means can slow down generation of nervous impulses in motor neurons of the central nervous system, acting as the weak antagonist of NMDA receptors.
Antiviral effect of drug is explained by its ability to block processes of penetration of a virus A into living cell.
After intake active ingredient is is good and quickly enough acquired in a digestive tract. The maximum concentration of Amantadin in a blood plasma can be noted in 4 hours after reception. Means breaks hematoencephalic and placental barriers, is excreted with breast milk. The elimination half-life of medicine makes about 15 hours. Substance in an invariable view with the help of kidneys is removed.
Indications to use
Drug is appointed:
- at Parkinson's illness;
- for treatment of rigid and akinetic forms of parkinsonism;
- at a loss of consciousness as a result of ChMT;
- for elimination of the extrapyramidal disturbances associated with reception of medicines (for example, neuroleptics);
- at the neuralgia accompanying shingles;
- if the patient needs to be brought from an anesthesia slowly;
- as a prophylactic at flu A;
- for treatment of flu A as a part of complex therapy.
Medicine is contraindicated:
- in the presence of allergic reactions to active ingredient;
- if at the patient psychoses were observed earlier;
- patient with epilepsy;
- at a thyrotoxicosis;
- to patients with glaucoma;
- at a prostate hyperplasia;
- to pregnant women;
- at a serious illness of a liver and kidneys;
- during feeding by a breast.
It is recommended to be careful:
- at treatment of patients with congestive heart failure;
- sick allergic dermatitis;
- at strong psychomotor excitement;
- to patients with a renal and liver failure;
- at hallucinations and confusion of consciousness.
During treatment by Amantadin can arise:
- headache, hallucinations, spasms, depression, psychomotor excitement;
- dizziness, sleeplessness, tremor, deterioration in sight, acrimony and sensitivity;
- decrease in the ABP, heart failure;
- lock, nausea, dryness of a mucous membrane of an oral cavity;
- nocturia, delay and difficulties with an urination, a polyuria (at a prostate hyperplasia);
- dermatosis, blue shade of skin on extremities;
- seldom – anorexia, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia.
Amantadin, application instruction (Way and dosage)
Drug is appointed inside. After meal.
The initial daily dosage for adults makes 0,1 grams. According to indications in 7 days after an initiation of treatment it is possible to increase a dosage to 0,2 g a day. The maximum quantity of drug which it is possible to accept during the day – 0,4 grams.
Because medicine can stimulate work of TsNS, it is not recommended to be used after 4 o'clock in the evening. At a renal failure a dosage it is necessary to lower and increase an interval between receptions.
Most often therapy is carried out in combination with other drugs (alpha dofy and cholinolytics). Duration of treatment is determined by the doctor.
For prevention or treatment of flu appoint 0,2 mg of drug within 10 days.
Intravenously substance is entered on 0,2 grams several times a day. Speed of infusion of low, no more than 50-60 drops in a minute, procedure is carried out within 3 hours.
For treatment of viral diseases of eyes of 0,5% aqueous solution is dug in in a conjunctival sac of 5 times a day, gradually reducing a dose to 1-2 times a day. The course of treatment makes from 5 to 15 days.
Data on overdose are absent.
At a combination to drug side effects when using other drugs for parkinsonism can amplify.
Simultaneous use of medicine and thiazide diuretics can lead to reduction of renal clearance of Amantadin and development of toxic effects, hallucinations, an ataxy, strong psychomotor excitement.
Quinidine and quinine are capable to slow down process of removal of drug with urine.
Isolated cases of emergence of confusion of consciousness at patients of old age at a medicine combination to co-trimoxazole are described.
If at the patient any undesirable side reactions were shown, then stop treatment gradually.
During therapy passing means is not recommended to be managed the car or to carry out potentially dangerous types of activity.
At treatment of patients 65 years are more senior it is necessary to show extra care.
It is better not to combine drug with alcohol.
At pregnancy and a lactation
Medicine is contraindicated to reception in the first trimester of pregnancy. On later terms substance can be appointed by the attending physician according to strict indications. During a lactation a breast it is the best of all to stop feeding.
Drugs in which contains (Amantadin's Analogues)
Section: Active ingredients
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