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Are called anesthetics special medicinal means which at introduction to a human body are capable to cause anesthesia.
The anesthetizing substances which were discovered still in the ancient time and were used while anesthetics, are classified as drugs today. For example, Egyptians, tried to make the anesthetizing and intoxicating substances at the heart of which there was an opium and the Indian hemp.
Anesthetics by the principle of the action are divided into two look: the local anesthetics used for local anesthesia and also the narcotic means which respectively are applied to the general anesthesia.
The essence of the mechanism of effect of local anesthetics consists in switching off of feeling of pain in any specific area. Anesthetics block conductivity of a nerve if are entered near it in enough. This anesthesia is called conduction, and its mechanism is reversible. Local anesthetics happen amide (ultrakain, lidocaine, mepivakain and other) and radio (anaesthesin, Dicainum, novocaine, etc. belong to them) . Effect of local anesthetics is connected with a nervous membrane, protein-rich and fats on which they exert active impact. Besides, anesthetics share depending on a form of local anesthesia in which they are applied. Gels and sprays are used at applikatsinny anesthesia. They are suitable for anesthesia of a mucous surface, at insignificant interventions. Such anesthetics quickly enough work – several minutes later there comes the desirable effect. At conduction local anesthesia also special types of means which allow to kill pain on big sites are used, having entered at the same time a small dose of drug. Such means allow to create special depot of a bliza of a nerve, the innervation zone necessary for anesthesia.
In narcotic anesthetics belong not inhalation and inhalation.
At an inhalation anesthesia inhalation anesthetics are applied. Their main advantage is that anesthesia comes quickly enough, as well as awakening, thanks to ability of ignalyatsionny anesthetics to get quickly into lungs and to be removed from them. Thus, melon drugs oppress consciousness of the patient less in the first days after an anesthesia. One of drugs of this kind of action is the so-called amusing gas, or nitrous oxide. Overdose by this drug is dangerous to many systems of an organism though at one time the amusing gas was illegally used as drug in clubs of America and Europe where it was on sale in balloons.
There is a set of various narcotic anesthetics, however, their final principle of action is similar. The principle of their action is that these anesthetics lead to oppression of spinal reflexes, all types of sensitivity, loss of consciousness, decrease in a tone of muscles.
At an anesthesia perhaps simultaneous introduction of several types of anesthetics. Today intravenous administration of various neurotropic drugs is widely applied that allows to receive good anesthesia without use of classical inhalation drugs for an anesthesia
To these the problem of anesthetics remains rather inconsistent. The drugs prohibited in one countries quietly are used in medical practice of other countries, besides, mortality from the wrong actions of the anesthesiologist connected with selection of improper drug or a dosage for the specific patient is not excluded.