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Anesthesia is a reduction of sensitivity of nerves up to total loss of perception of information, both about own state, and about environment. During anesthesia the consciousness can be lost or remain.
Anesthesia to be divided into two look: the general and local.
The general anesthesia (or an anesthesia) is a loss of all sensitivity of an organism, is frequent with disturbance of consciousness at the different levels.
Local anesthesia is connected with an anesthesia of nerves of a certain body part. It is in turn subdivided into the following types:
Epidural anesthesia — administration of anesthetic of substance in an epidural space for the purpose of blocking at the level of spinal nerves
Spinal anesthesia — administration of anesthetic in a subdural space for blocking of transfer of an impulse at the level of spinal nerves
The back and epidural anesthesia (combined)
Inhalation anesthesia — inhalation administration of anesthetics
Infiltrative anesthesia - anesthesia at the level of small nervous branches and pain receptors
Conduction anesthesia — anesthesia at the level of neuroplexes or a trunk of a nerve
The type of anesthesia and anesthetic is defined for each person individually, depending on a type of operational intervention, nature of pathological process, age, a state of health.
For the general anesthesia there is a number of contraindications at which or it is worth waiting a little with operation a little, or to postpone for ever. But when the advantage of otoperativny intervention with anesthesia above potential danger, an anesthesia can be applied.
For carrying out an anesthesia treat the general contraindications:
- Cardiovascular insufficiency
- The expressed anemia
- Acute forms of diseases of parenchymatous bodies (kidneys, liver, lungs)
- Some abolevaniye of respiratory tracts (mainly upper), asthma
- Pheochromocytoma and other diseases of adrenal glands
- Diabetes mellitus
- Heart attack, the postinfarction period before half a year
- Epilepsy (frequent attacks)
- Narkoticheskiy or alcoholic intoxication
- Reception of glucocorticoid drugs for a long time
- Full stomach
The general anesthesia is rather long state consisting of several periods.
The period of introduction of an anesthesia is time from the beginning of introduction of means before its surgical stage. During this period the risk of emergence of complications is maximum and therefore from the anesthesiologist the maximum attention is required. The combined methods with inclusion of analgetics, tranquilizers and hypnotic drugs are optimum. At operations in chelyustnolitsevy area the trachea intubation is of great importance for ensuring ventilation of the lungs.
The second period – maintenance of an anesthesia. This time corresponds to time of carrying out operation. The main objective of the anesthesiologist at this stage consists in maintenance of the patient in an optimum condition, providing good conditions for work of the surgeon. For maintenance of the general anesthesia drugs for intravenous anesthesia by various drugs with preservation of independent breath, an inhalation ftorotanovy anesthesia, the general electroanesthesia are used.
During the period of removal from an anesthesia recovery of muscular activity of the patient, breath and consciousness is supposed. Quite often this period is followed by dangerous spasms, and also vomiting, dizziness, disturbance of a hemodynamics, etc.
Most heavier the organism transfers the general anesthesia though modern drugs are directed to that an exit from a condition of an anesthesia was the softest and had no negative effects. During operation about the patient owes all the time there is an anesthesiologist who is constantly measuring pulse, pressure, etc.