Antibiotics

Antibiotics are drugs of a semi-synthetic or natural origin which suppress growth of living cells, usually the elementary or prokaryotic. It was accepted to call the drugs received in completely synthetic way antibacterial himiopreparata, but not antibiotics. However recently, when such himiopreparata began not to concede on the influence and antibiotics in their initial sense, the term "antibiotic" began to extend, and now can mean means even of a chemical origin by it.

Penicillin and streptomycin which invention became the real break in medicine was the first invented antibiotics.

A big variety of types of antibiotics led to division them on groups. On nature of influence it is possible to allocate three groups:

  • Bacterolytic – the strongest group, at influence of such drugs occurs not only death of bacteria, but also destructions of their cell walls.
  • Bactericides – this group of antibiotics also kills bacteria, however they physically continue is in the environment.
  • Bacteriostatic antibiotics influence bacteria in such a way that they remain in a live look, but lose an opportunity to breed therefore, in most cases, to occur their death.

Also antibiotics are divided into a set of groups depending on chemical structure, from the place of influence, from potential danger, etc.

Long time in pharmacology was not the uniform principles for assignment to drugs of names. Most often they were called depending on a chemical structure or according to the name of a producer. But in the seventies the last century the medicine at last came to the general recommended rules allowing to give the name to antibiotics.

Unlike antiseptic agents, antibacterial activity not only in case of external use, but also biological fabrics and Wednesdays is inherent in antibiotics at their system use (in the form of tablets, injections, candles, etc.)

The mechanism of action of antibiotics depends on their chemical structure and a set of other factors.

  • The antibiotics possessing bactericidal action influence cells of bacteria in such a way that there is a change of synthesis of a cell wall. They do not kill cells without walls and motionless cells.
  • Disturbance of cellular membranes, binding of in, their transportation – also one of the most important mechanisms of antibiotics.
  • Disturbance of synthesis of nucleic acids — so works other mechanism of these drugs. Usually suppression of DNA and RNA of microorganisms is connected with such mechanism.
  • Suppression of synthesis of pyrimidines and purines.
  • Inhibition of respiratory enzymes, functions of ribosomes, amino acids.

The Antibiotikorezistentnost is an ability of an organism to be steady against influence of an antibiotic.

This phenomenon can result from mutations of viruses, and also because of fixing of drug in population. The antibiotic in itself cannot be an antibiotikorezistentnost origin.

The following can be mechanisms of such stability: nonsensitivity to some types of drugs due to the lack of a cell wall, impermeability of a microorganism for an antibiotic, a possibility of a microorganism to turn an antibiotic into its inactive form, ability of bacteria to transfer reactions owing to genovariations, ability to extort drug from cells.

In addition to antibacterial action, some drugs can possess some other useful effects: one antibiotics are capable to remove an inflammation, to have immunomodulatory, and also antineoplastic effect.

For anybody not a secret that simultaneous use of antibiotics and alcoholic beverages can negatively affect on health. It is connected with the fact that alcohol can exert impact on a metabolism and activity of antibiotics. In certain cases such combinations can do serious harm, up to a lethal outcome. Some antibiotics, considerably lose the efficiency at alcohol intake, it is possible to distinguish erythromycin and doxycycline from them. At reception of a tsefmenoksim, furasolidone, a latamoksef, a tsefoperazon, a tsefamandol, a ketokonazol, levomycetinum and Ko-Trimoksazol the use of alcoholic beverages is strictly contraindicated.

Section: And