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November 2, 2011
The antiseptics is a set of the actions connected with destruction of microorganisms in fabrics, bodies, wounds, the pathological centers, and also in general in an organism. If the asepsis is urged to prevent emergence of microorganisms, then an antiseptic agent – to fight directly against them. For these purposes physical and mechanical methods of influence, various biological factors and chemicals are used.
The surgeon J. Pringl who described antiseptic action of substance of quinine and entered into use it is the term.
Along with blood typing, discovery of the anesthetizing drugs, implementation of antiseptics and an asepsis consider as the main achievements of medicine of the 19th century.
Such huge significance is attached to antiseptics still for a long time. For example, professor Erikoyen, at the beginning of a century before last made the statement that a head cavity, belly and chest cavities forever will remain closed out of access for surgical interventions as for those times all cases of such intervention came to an end with a lethal outcome for patients because of the infection brought by the surgeon's hands.
The modern antiseptics, of course, is much more sparing: the carbolic acid which is often used some time ago is replaced with less toxic means today. The same substances are used for disinfecting of medical tools, surrounding objects. The asepsis densely reunited with antiseptics, and it is not possible to provide both of these concepts separately simply.
Types of antiseptics
Allocate several types of antiseptics, but on practice several methods of destruction of microorganisms are usually used. In dependence of the used methods the antiseptics is subdivided on biological, chemical, physical and mechanical. Also it can be divided into the general and local, the last can be deep and superficial. Applications, ointments and powders are used for superficial, injections – for deep. The deep antiseptics is carried out due to introduction to an organism of antibiotics and other drugs which due to the movement in a lymph and a blood channel reach the center.
This method includes removal of pus from a wound cavity, clarification of a surface and preparation for bandaging. Further there can be a preprocessing of a wound: section, excision of edges, wound bottom, removal of blood and centers of a necrosis, recovery of fabrics. Secondary surgical treatment includes the following procedures: excision of dead fabrics, removal of various foreign bodys, opening of zatek and pockets, drainage of a wound. Active infectious process, big zones of a necrosis, existence of a suppurative focus are indications for carrying out this processing. Thus, the mechanical method represents disposal of infections in the surgical way.
Such method of antiseptics means conditions which are adverse for reproduction of microbes in a wound. It is based on laws of diffusion and osmosis. Use of tampons, a gauze, napkins, a gauze and other dressing materials which provide full absorption of a wound secret with microbes is characteristic of physical antiseptics. Such dressing materials can be moistened with hypertonic salt solutions which improve a pulling of moisture and absorbency of these materials. Drying and washing are also important factors of disposal of microorganisms: wounds after such processing heal quicker. Along with above-stated the drainage method, sorbents, technical means (hyperbaric oxygenation, ultrasound, ultraviolet radiation, the laser, a roentgenotherapy etc.) are used.
At given a method of antiseptics various chemicals suppressing life activity and killing microorganisms in a wound are used. The substances used for these purposes divide into two look: disinfecting substances (for tools, floors, walls), antiseptic substances (for processing of wounds, mucous, the surgeon's hands), chemotherapeutic means (the streptocides and antibiotics suppressing growth of bacteria). To sredstvamkhimichesky antiseptic agents it is possible to carry the following: acids and alkalis derivative of nitrofuran, oxidizers, detergents, dyes, salts of metals derivative of a hinoksiksalin. Chemical antiseptic agents can be applied as locally, in the form of imposing of bandages and introduction to necessary area, and also can have the general use, as intravenous injections, reception of antibacterial agents in the form of tablets, etc.
The biological antiseptics represents the most difficult method at which the patient applies biological products which affect microorganisms. Treat them: streptocides and antibiotics which have bactericidal effect, devourers of bacteria – bacteriophages, fermental drugs, specific bodies – antitoxins which develop in an organism under the influence of special serums, immunoexcitants, anatoxins (an immunity factor at many diseases). Most often in medical practice antibiotics are used. They represent the drugs having pernicious or selective effect on microorganisms. Exists several main the mechanism of action of antibiotics: change of synthesis of RNA, intracellular synthesis of protein, cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall of a bacterium. One of serious problems of medicine is an emergence of stability of microorganisms to these drugs today.
The mixed antiseptics
In modern medicine often it is necessary to resort to the mixed antiseptics – reception which means complex use of several methods at the same time.