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Antibodies are proteins which are present at an intercellular lymph, blood serum and at a cell membrane, the distinguishing and connecting antigens. They interact with that antigen which originally was the B-cells activator, thus strict specificity of antibodies is shown. They are synthesized by plasmocytes in response to antigens — a certain structure alien substances. At mammals allocate five classes of antibodies which differ on a structure and amino-acid structure of chains.
It is a little history
For the first time antibodies were found a little more than a century ago – in 1890. However at that time time, except their existence in blood of an animal sick with tetanus, nothing could not be told. And only from 40th years of last century active studying of molecular structure of antibodies began.
It is possible to distinguish from the main functions of antibodies following two:
- Recognition and binding of antigens
- Effector (an inactivation or removal of alien object from an organism)
Characteristic feature of antibodies consists in a bifunktsionalnost, that is in performance of both functions.
Variability of antibodies
Antibodies are extremely variable, one organism can contain hundreds of billions of units of these proteins. Such variety follows from variability of light and heavy chains, and also from specificity. Allocate several types of variability of the proteins differing by the nature, a structure of chains, etc. The specific antibody forms communication with the specific antigen which caused such reaction.
Use in medicine
Protective function of antibodies allows to use widely them in prevention of infectious diseases. Reactions of antigens with antibodies are applied in diagnosis and therapy of diseases, cleaning and release of some biological substances. Ability of antibodies to contact other substances does possible their use and in nanomedicine for delivery of substance in certain cells (onkomarker and dr).