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January 17, 2012
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Arthritis is a state at which there is an inflammatory process in joints of the person. At patients for whom arthritis is diagnosed symptoms are shown by pain during the movement or at a raising of weights. Joints gradually become less mobile, they can change a form. Sometimes at arthritis tumors, erubescence over a joint are shown, there can be fever.
At sharp display of an illness acute arthritis is diagnosed for the patient, at its gradual forming — chronic arthritis.
Arthritis can be also an independent disease and arise as display of other disease. According to statistical data, arthritis is observed at every 100-th person in the world. The illness is diagnosed for people of different age groups, but most often arthritis affects elderly people and women in the middle age.
Distinguish from risk factors of a disease genetic (a floor, existence of hereditary problems with joints) and acquired (obesity, smoking, tendency to an allergy).
Symptoms of arthritis
Symptoms of this illness most often is the feeling of some constraint in joints, and also increase of temperature of fabrics over a joint. The person feels joint pain, affected with arthritis, there is a swelling later, the joint begins to move less accurately.
If at the patient pronounced acute arthritis is shown, symptoms can be more various. Under similar circumstances at the patient fever attacks, constant feeling of a febricula and weakness, a leukocytosis are observed. The inflammation is shown, first of all, in an internal cover of a joint. Sometimes in a cavity of a joint there is an accumulation of an inflammatory exudate – exudate. Later pathology expands on joint bones, a cartilage, a joint capsule, extends to fabrics about joints — ligaments, sinews.
Types of arthritis
By the number of the affected joints arthritis can be divided into monoarthritis (one affected joint), an oligoarthritis (two or three affected joints), polyarthritis (it is a lot of affected joints).
Rather intensive pain in a joint is characteristic of acute arthritis. Chronic arthritis which develops gradually is followed by periodically shown pains, less strong, than at an acute form of an illness.
According to types of injury of joints distinguish several kinds of an illness. Traumatic arthritis is shown in the presence of the opened and closed injuries of joints and in case of regularly arising slight injuries.
Dystrophic arthritis is shown owing to changes in exchange processes, at strong cooling, excessive physical tension, avitaminosis.
Infectious arthritis is shown under the influence of a certain infection.
If at the patient arthritis is shown, symptoms of an illness can be lowered to smaller intensity for several days or more long time. Most important for patients with arthritis – not to allow activation of inflammatory process again. Therefore, at this disease the constant control and supervision of the experienced doctor is required.
Treatment of arthritis
It is important to consider that process of treatment of arthritis is labor-consuming and difficult. The main objective at treatment of arthritis reduction of displays of an illness, resuming of exchange processes in a joint is considered. Also follows all efforts to direct to the maximum to keep functions of the joints affected with arthritis.
Also a number of the factors which are negatively influencing recovery process is allocated. They should be anticipated in the course of treatment. So, it is important to carry out effective treatment of that illness which became the arthritis prime cause, or it is necessary to remove the cause for which arthritis was shown.
Today some types of treatment of arthritis which are selected depending on a look and features of an illness are applied. Therapy of arthritis can be complex, long, systematic.
At the same time treatment of this disease without fail includes the methods directed to recovering processes in cartilaginous tissue, and also methods of combined effect on the patient's organism.
At treatment of an illness both pharmacological and not pharmacological methods, and surgical ways are applied. At use of a pharmacological way of treatment of arthritis to the patient carrying out local therapy with use of nonsteroid ointments or creams with antiinflammatory action is appointed. Also vnutrisustavno or periartikulyarno the glyukokortikosteraidny drugs are administered. If joint pain not too strong, then perhaps periodic use of usual analgetics (for example, paracetamol). In the course of treatment of arthritis by means of pharmacological means drugs which not only anesthetize are of great importance, but also slow down or subject to involution pathological processes in joints. These means which are called hondroprotektor stop production of enzyme which destroys a cartilage, and in parallel improve synthesis of the main substance of a cartilage. Such drugs considerably reduce pain and practically do not cause side effects.
As not pharmacological ways of treatment use of special orthopedic footwear, kneecaps, instep supports, a cane is applied during walking. The patient is recommended to reduce as much as possible load of joints, if necessary to lose excess weight, to go in for physiotherapy exercises and to complete a course of individually picked up physiotherapeutic treatment. It is not necessary to carry out at all exercises which include squats, and also exercises on the bent knees. The last is especially important for those for whom arthritis of a knee joint is diagnosed. An ideal sport for patients with arthritis is swimming.
Important step at treatment of arthritis is also fight against addictions. So, the patient with arthritis should leave off smoking, not to abuse coffee.
As surgical treatment the method of endoprosthesis replacement of joints is applied. Similar treatment is reasonable only at severe forms of an illness.
If at the person arthritis already developed, it should approach very competently the choice of exercises for sports activities. It is not necessary to stand too long span. The special attention needs to be paid also to selection of products for an everyday diet. Animal fats, flour, acute it is necessary to exclude. At the same time extraordinary healthy food at arthritis is grain cellulose.
The pseudorheumatism is a state at which at the patient the rheumatic inflammation which differs in an unknown etiology is shown. At a pseudorheumatism the patient has a synovitis of peripheral joints and systemic lesion of internals of inflammatory character.
Injuries, infections, allergens become the reasons of manifestation of a pseudorheumatism often, toxins can also provoke an illness. Very often sharp development of a pseudorheumatism happens in the winter, during epidemic adverse situation with distribution of viral infections. There is also a genetic favor to a disease: at relatives of those who got sick with a pseudorheumatism the illness is fixed much more often.
Today physicians allocate four stages of a pseudorheumatism. For the first display of circumarticular osteoporosis, is characteristic of the second — symptoms of osteoporosis and narrowing of a joint crack, at the third stage except the specified symptoms the erosion of bones is noted, and patients with the fourth stage have diseases, except the specified signs, available — a joint anchylosis.
The feeling of a febricula, weakness, feeling of constraint in the morning, loss of weight, a lymphadenopathy can precede the expressed damage of joints at patients with a pseudorheumatism. As the main symptom of an illness it is considered to be existence of arthritis (as a rule, polyarthritis) in which radiocarpal, metacarpophalangeal, proximal joints of brushes, and also plusnofalangovy joints are involved. The illness develops gradually, arthritis at the same time progresses in view of involvement in process damage of new joints. Much less often extraarticular manifestations of a pseudorheumatism which treatment is carried out according to the separate scheme meet.
Especially often the pseudorheumatism of a knee joint is diagnosed for patients. This kind of arthritis causes the patient especially many troubles, arthritis of a knee joint even on condition of not especially strong disturbances brings the expressed discomfortable feelings.
To patients for whom the pseudorheumatism is diagnosed treatment is appointed, first of all, with the purpose to reduce inflammatory process. Also the means capable to improve functioning of joints are applied. A main goal of similar treatment – prevention of an invalidism of the patient.
If at the patient the pseudorheumatism is revealed, treatment also has to include surely remedial gymnastics, entering of some changes into usual way of life.
In the course of medicamentous therapy of an illness widely apply anti-inflammatory drugs, and also the slow-acting drugs preventing pathological processes in joints. If deformation of a joint to become strongly expressed, surgical treatment of an illness is applied.
It is accepted to determine by this term inflammations of joints which arise as a result of infections, however at the same time there is no penetration into a cavity of a joint of the infectious agent.
Reactive arthritis is shown generally owing to change of immunity at the people having a hereditary arrangement to insufficient utilization of complexes antigen. Reactive arthritis sometimes becomes an effect of many infections. Most often it is a consequence of the postponed coloenteritis. Arthritis of this type develops as an illness of an acute form. At display of reactive arthritis the patient has a swelling, the increased skin temperature over joints, joint pains, a leukocytosis, fever. Generally the inflammation affects joints of the lower extremities, fingers of feet often suffer. Also pain which sometimes brings difficulties when walking arise in heels. Most often reactive arthritis lasts not for long – several days or weeks. The illness often passes without treatment, however there is a risk transition of this type of arthritis to a chronic form.
Prevention of arthritis
To prevent development of arthritis, it is especially important to adhere as much as possible to a healthy lifestyle. This balanced and good nutrition (it is important to use products which contain a lot of calcium and vitamins), an exercise stress (jogs and walks). In everyday life it is necessary to take all possible measures to protect joints from too strong tension. For this purpose it is necessary to lift correctly weights and to carefully perform all operations connected with load of joints.
Section: And Rheumatology