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The asepsis represents set of actions which are directed to the prevention of penetration of microbes into a cavity of a wound and development of infectious diseases owing to such penetration. Thus this profilaktichesy means against microbes. Quite often the asepsis is confused to antiseptics, however these concepts should be distinguished. The antiseptics is a disposal of microbes which already are in a wound.
Ernst von Bergmann, the German surgeon, is one of founders of an asepsis. Such techniques of protection against microbes as boiling, autoclaving, a burning were offered them. Today there are also chemical and mechanical methods.
Generally the asepsis is applicable to and during operations on healthy fabrics, but is not used in those cases if it is possible to assume existence of inflammatory processes in a wound.
At aseptic processing such substances as corrosive sublimate, carbolic acid, chloroamine solution, alcohol, etc. are used.
Before antiseptics the asepsis has a number of advantages as at antiseptic treatment organism poisoning with some drugs is possible.
Sterilization is an asepsis basis. It is possible to distinguish from its ways:
- Use of steam under pressure
- Cold sterilization
- Alcohol use
- Roasting over a flame
Considering the fact that with dust microbes and bacteria can get to wounds during operations, the correct and timely cleaning of rooms is also an important stage of an asepsis. For effective cleaning wet cleaning of rooms by a special raster, airing, use of ultra-violet lamps is carried out.
Hands of the surgeon represent one of the most dangerous sources of an infection therefore pay to this moment much attention. Mechanical receptions of an asepsis in this case cannot be applied therefore chemical are generally used: a skin tanning tannin, alcohol which leads to a spasm grease and sweat glands so the infection which can be present at them is not capable to come to light. Recently the wide circulation was got by processing of hands of the surgeon pervomury. Experiment showed that glove juice which was formed 12 hours was sterile.
Control sterility is also an important stage of an asepsis. There are 3 ways depending on auxiliary materials: physical, chemical and biological. The last way is the most reliable, but the longest: its results it is necessary to wait for 48 hours that pertinently not always.