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October 22, 2011
Atherosclerosis is one of serious and dangerous chronic diseases of vessels of heart and brain in which the single or multiple centers of cholesteric and lipidic deposits, the peculiar atheromatous plaques consisting of calcium, cholesterol and connecting fabric in an internal cover of arteries are formed.
The artery at which the wall is struck becomes less elastic and owing to what it is condensed. Gradually expanding connecting fabric and calcification lead to deformation and considerable narrowing of a gleam between artery walls up to its full of obstruction, this most causing chronic insufficiency of supply with blood and ischemia of body which eats through the affected artery. Also acute obstruction of arteries blood clots or contents from the broken-up substant of an atheromatous plaque is possible that it causes complications of atherosclerosis, leads to formation of a necrosis (heart attack) or gangrene in the body fed by an artery.
The general damage of all arteries of an organism meets quite seldom. Obstruction of vessels of certain bodies is very often observed: brain and heart, lower extremities or kidneys. Progressing of atherosclerosis is expressed that at an intensive functional load on body inflow of blood to it is insufficient. It leads to unpleasant feelings from body. The clinic of a disease varies depending on localization and distribution of the affected arteries. Atherosclerosis has a chronic current and is the reason of disability and even premature death.
To atherosclerosis the hypertension, obesity, the increased level of psychological loadings, high rates of level of cholesterol, a diabetes mellitus, unhealthy way of life, an insufficient physical activity, smoking and so forth has. Middle age at which atherosclerosis most often affects a human body from 40 to 45 years. Men are subject to atherosclerosis in 3, and sometimes and in 4 rubles more often than women, it is connected with the fact that prevention of atherosclerosis at the stronger sex is more often taken not seriously. In particular smoking and alcohol intake of the man continue, despite threat of a disease.
As any illness atherosclerosis has the main signs on which the illness can be distinguished. Symptoms of atherosclerosis can be various. Everything depends on degree and the place of defeat of this or that vessel. The struck vessels of a brain lead to its insufficient blood supply and as a result to deterioration in its functions. The first symptom in this case is memory impairment on recently taken place events. Diagnosis of atherosclerosis at such succession of events shows irreversible changes.
Further emotional instability and gradual decrease in intelligence is observed. Very often patients complain of feeling of a pulsation and "noise" in the head. All other symptoms of atherosclerosis depend more on what of sites of a brain is struck. The atherosclerosis which affected brain vessels it becomes very frequent a basic reason of an ischemic stroke.
Complications of atherosclerosis
Atherosclerotic damage of an aorta is shown gradually accruing arterial hypertension, the noise appearing before belly department of an aorta of ascending. Complication in this case is insufficient blood supply of a brain and as a result – dizzinesses, faints, strokes. The stratified aorta hematoma is menacing for life of the patient. The disease is shown by a pain attack, in chest or in an abdominal cavity. There are all symptoms of an acute loss of blood. The most frequent and life-threatening complication of atherosclerosis of an aorta is the aortic aneurysm which is characterized by a sudden gap with bleeding in a chest cavity or in the zabryushny space leading to death. Aneurism of a chest aorta is shown by hoarseness of a voice, rough systolic noise, a dysphagy.
Absence or small quantity of symptoms do an aortic aneurysm of belly department of the most life-threatening of the patient.
Atherosclerotic damage of mesenteric arteries which feed intestines is shown by the following symptoms:
- Attacks of kolikopodobny abdominal pains (belly toad), it is frequent with swelling of intestines and vomiting which most often arise after food.
- Thrombosis of arterial arteries with a necrosis of a wall of a mesentery and a gut.
Atherosclerotic damage of arteries and vessels of the lower extremities is characterized by the following symptoms: a chill of legs, the calves pains arising when walking, discoloration of skin of legs and deformation of nails, weakening of a pulsation of arteries, development of dry gangrene.
Atherosclerosis of a renal artery is shown by a chronic circulatory unefficiency (ischemia) of a kidney, a nephrosclerosis and a chronic renal failure. Thrombosis of a renal artery is shown by acute renal pain, morbidity at a palpation and at a prostukivaniye of lumbar area from the formed thrombosis.
Irrespective of a location of atherosclerotic defeats allocate two types of complications. Chronic and acute. Refer chronic vascular insufficiency which is followed by a hypoxia, atrophic and dystrophic changes in the struck body to chronic complications. Acute complications, most often, are caused by developing of blood clots, emboluses and vasospasms, in such cases urgent treatment of atherosclerosis and its complications is required. The acute occlusion which is followed by acute ischemia leads to development of heart attacks.
Diagnosis of atherosclerosis
At the first displays of atherosclerosis it is necessary to see immediately a doctor and to pass obligatory inspection. Very often atherosclerosis develops imperceptibly during the long period. The general direction of diagnosis of atherosclerosis in general looks as follows:
- poll of the patient for the purpose of clarification of symptoms — coronary heart disease, signs of disturbance of blood circulation of a brain, a belly toad, alternating lamenesses;
- Survey of the patient. Includes identification of signs of a senilism of an organism. Pay attention to the following signs: a hair loss, and also change of nail plates standing, the overgrowth of hair in auricles and some other signs of damage of internals. Further listening of internals and a palpation of all available arteries follows. The analysis of the revealed systolic noise at the time of listening of heart, increase of arterial pressure.
- Determination of the risk factors promoting atherosclerosis. Detection of a hypertension, obesity, a diabetes mellitus, nervous tension, existence of addictions or other factors which directly influence development of atherosclerosis.
- Laboratory and tool diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Laboratory assessment of fatty (lipidic) changes in an organism. Echocardiography. Ultrasonography - scanning of vessels of the head, neck and the lower extremities. Electrocardiography.
Treatment of atherosclerosis
Treatment of atherosclerosis is, as a rule, long process. The scheme of treatment which lasts not less than 6 months includes several components. Reception of gipolidemichesky drugs which reduce the level of lipids in blood improve oxygenation of fabrics, improve a hemorheology and increase elasticity of walls of vessels. Development of a special diet for the purpose of decrease in level of cholesterol at the patient. Refusal of smoking as nicotine worsens blood supply and promotes fibrinferments. Administration of drugs which reduce risk of thromboses.
Existence of atherosclerotic plaques which interfere with normal blood supply of bodies causes use of surgical methods of treatment of atherosclerosis. In the surgical way the damaged blood vessel site, blood clot is removed, and also prosthetics of vessels is made. This method is applied to treatment of atherosclerotic damage of arteries of the lower extremities, internals and coronal cardiac arteries.
Prevention of atherosclerosis
Prevention of atherosclerosis consists in elimination of the greatest number of risk factors and change of way of life. Flat refusal of smoking, fight against obesity, increase in an exercise stress, elimination of stressful situations. Researches showed that elimination of one factor promoting development of atherosclerosis reduces risk of development of a disease twice. Therefore the healthy lifestyle will help to avoid such illness as atherosclerosis.
Section: Diseases of vessels