Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis – a hereditary noninfectious disease of integuments, allergic character, can be chronic. According to the statistics most often the disease occurs at members of one family. If someone from relatives or parents has such diseases as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, probability of transfer of a disease to the child by inheritance to the child of 50%. In a case when both parent are ill, the probability of heredity grows to 80%. Sometimes existence only of asthma at parents, can cause atopic dermatitis in the child.

Reasons of atopic dermatitis

Displays of a disease on the first year of life it is most often connected with input of a feeding up in the child's diet. Carry cow's milk, eggs and fish therefore they are not recommended to be entered into a feeding up till 10-12 months to allergenic products. Can cause allergic reactions also artificial mixes.

Approximately at 70% of patients the disease passes in teenage age, at the others passes into an adult form at which aggravations are replaced by remissions with short time, and then the illness becomes aggravated again. At adults act as allergens house dust, hair of animals, a mold, plants, symptoms change also a little.

Thus, basic reasons of atopic dermatitis have the allergic nature and are reaction to existence of contact or the use of certain substances – allergens.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis

In most cases the disease is shown within the first five years of life, and the peak falls on the first year. At more adult age symptoms of atopic dermatitis can disappear or weaken, but in half of cases they remain throughout all life. The disease can be followed by such diseases as bronchial asthma and allergies.

If atopic dermatitis at children is shown in the form of the red shelled spots and bubbles, then at adults skin is thickened, there are cracks and crusts. More often symptoms are shown on sensitive sites of skin. The face, a neck, axillary hollows, elbow and popliteal spaces, inguinal area are exposed to defeat. These sites can repeatedly be surprised during aggravations, but sometimes, in process of a growing localization changes.

The acute stage of a disease is characterized by red spots, small knots, a skin peeling. Also there are superficial defects – erosion, the dipped crusts, skin looks bloated and swelled up a little.

The chronic stage has other symptoms of atopic dermatitis, they are result of an itch and combing. Skin is thickened, skin drawing amplifies, painful cracks on palms and soles appear. There is a hyperpegmentation a century, they become more dark color, it a combing effect too. The symptom of "the polished nails" is observed, owing to a constant rasches of skin on nails longitudinal striation disappears, they take a characteristic form of the polished nails.

Atopic dermatitis at children is noted by such symptoms as Denye-Morgan's folds. On lower eyelids there are profound wrinkles, eyelids darken. There can be a symptom pseudo of Hertoga at which eyebrow hair, at first in an outside third, and then and completely temporarily disappear. Both children, and at adults have a dystrophy of hair of occipital area – a symptom of "a fur cap", a hyperemia and an infiltration of soles, they are shelled and burst, call this symptom a symptom of "winter foot".

Complications of atopic dermatitis

The most frequent complications of atopic dermatitis are caused by accession of consecutive infections. It occurs when combing skin which leads to disturbance of its protective properties.

The damaged sites are exposed to influence of microbic and fungal flora, and also viral infections. Consecutive infections complicate treatment of atopic dermatitis, causing the new centers of defeat, and negatively influencing the general condition of the patient.

The pyoderma, that is bacterial infection of which emergence of the pustules which are gradually drying up and forming crusts is characteristic advances other complications of atopic dermatitis on emergence frequency. The disease is followed by disturbances of the general state, temperature increase, an itch. Rashes can be on all body and on pilar part of the head.

Also often the viral infection caused by a herpes simplex virus can be complication also. The same virus causes herpes on lips. On skin vials of liquid which are localized not only around an affected area, and and on healthy skin are formed. Quite often bubbles appear on mucous membranes in oral cavities, throats, a conjunctiva and generative organs. At fungal infections skin, nails, pilar part of the head, foot and brush are surprised. At children more often such complications have the milkwoman's symptoms, is surprised mucous a mouth. The curdled plaque often is followed by reddening and an itch.

Prevention of atopic dermatitis

Профилактика атопического дерматитаIt is necessary the people having atopic dermatitis more carefully and shows consideration for the way of life, to find more time for the dwelling. In the house there should not be objects accumulating dust as it the main allergen. Indoors there has to be a minimum of carpets and upholstered furniture, all surfaces have to give in easily to wet cleaning which is carried out as often as possible, but without washing chemical means. It is necessary to air more often the dwelling, having established on the grid windows which are not allowing to get to vegetable pollen into the house. As for bedding, they have to be with synthetic fillers, use of down and a feather is inadmissible. In other words for the people inclined to a disease, prevention of atopic dermatitis is directed to minimization of contact with allergens.

The clothes have to pass easily air in order that skin could breathe. The clothes from wool, nylon and polyester not the best option as it strengthens an itch and irritate skin. It is impossible to use hot water when washing, only warm. After washing it is necessary to promakivat skin, but not to wipe it. Cosmetics for moistening and care of integuments are surely used. They have to be neutral and not contain dyes, fragrances and preservatives. That is in addition prevention of atopic dermatitis provides measures for prevention of mechanical irritation of the damaged sites.

Not less important for prevention and timely treatment of chronic diseases, reception of sosudoukreplyayushchy drugs and soothing before important events. In food it is necessary to avoid allergenic products even during the periods of remission of a disease.

Treatment of atopic dermatitis

The general treatment of atopic dermatitis is based on the following principles: allergen elimination, removal of symptoms, prevention of complications. The hypoallergenic diet and medicamentous therapy is appointed. The diet excludes products capable to cause allergic reaction: citrus, nuts, fish and fish products, bird, chocolate, coffee, cocoa, smoked products, vinegar, mustard, mayonnaise and other spices. Also it is recommended to exclude from a diet — horse-radish, a radish, tomatoes, eggplants, mushrooms, eggs, milk, strawberry, wild strawberry, melons, pineapples, fancy pastry, honey.

Drug treatment of atopic dermatitis includes antihistamines the withdrawing itches and drugs with detoksikatsionny means — Erius, Tavegil, Suprastinum, Ketotifenum, Klaritin, Feksadin, Loratadin, Telfast, and for clarification appoint Enterosgel, Polyphepanum, Absorbent carbon, Sodium thiosulphate.

Drugs with antiinflammatory action are without fail used. It can be corticosteroids — Eloky, Lokoid, Tselestoderm, Akriderm, Synaflanum, Diprosalik, Belosalik, and also demulcents — glycine, persen, various soothing collecting herbs, a valerian, a peony, and others.

For external use use such antiseptic agents as fukartsin, diamond green, methylene blue. For temporary use of the general condition of the patient the complex of vitamins and microelements is appointed, the hardening is recommended.

In case of accession of consecutive infections drugs depending on a type of the activator are appointed. In addition appoint fermental drugs at dysfunctions of a pancreas and eubiotika at an intestinal dysbiosis. At an acute stage a moknutiya use the wet drying bandages and corticosteroid aerosols.

The most important condition without which treatment of atopic dermatitis should begin effective — not to pound and to comb skin. As well as some other skin diseases it is followed by an intolerable itch which is very difficult for suffering. Combing the defeat centers, patients cause aggravations and complications of an illness, and at the same time all medicines will be useless.

If symptoms of atopic dermatitis at you or your child appeared only at an initial stage - it is not an occasion to self-medicate. Surely it is necessary to address the dermatologist.

Complications of this illness can lead to serious infectious diseases. It is necessary to follow accurately instructions of the doctor, adhering to his recommendations in everyday life, only this way it is possible to avoid constant aggravations.

Section: Dermatology (Skin diseases)