Atropine

Атропин Drug photo

The description is actual on 17.02.2016

  • Latin name: Atropine
  • ATH code: S01FA01
  • Active ingredient: Atropine (Atropine)
  • Producer: JSC DALKHIMFARM, Russia

Structure

As a part of drug the main substance Atropini sulfas and additional components depending on its form contains.

Release form

Main form of production of Atropine: injection solution and eye drops. Solution is packed into ampoules of 1 ml, and eye drops in bottles droppers on 5 ml.

Pharmacological action

Drug possesses the cholinolytic action capable to block M-holinoretseptory.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

Atropine is an alkaloid which also contains in some plants, for example, to a belladonna, a dope, a henbane and others. In medicine the substance called Atropini sulfas is used. It should be noted that the form of release of this component represents the granular or crystal powder of white color which does not have a smell. It is easily dissolved in water or ethanol, shows chloroform and ether resistance.

The pharmacological group which includes this drug is cholinolytic. At the same time the mechanism of action includes blocking of m-holinoretseptorov.

Use of this substance leads to an amidriaz, accommodation paralysis, increase of intraocular pressure, tachycardia and a xerostomia. Oppression of secretion of bronchial, sweat and other glands is also noted. There is a relaxation in smooth muscles of bronchial tubes, zhelche-or urinary bodies, the gastrointestinal tract, that is substance works as the antagonist, and shows spasmolytic effect.

In big dosages excitement of a nervous system is possible. When Atropine is entered in/in, manifestation of the maximum effect is noted 2-4 minutes later and if eye drops, then in 30 minutes are used.

Getting into blood, substance for 18% takes up with proteins of plasma, passing through GEB is possible. Removal is carried out by means of kidneys, in an invariable form for 50%.

Indications to Atropine use

The main indications to use:

Purpose of drug in ophthalmology is recommended at:

  • need to expand a pupil and to reach accommodation paralysis for research of an eyeground;
  • creation of functional rest during inflammations and an injury of eyes.

Contraindications

Contraindications at which this drug is not appointed are known. Namely at:

  • hypersensitivity to its components.

In ophthalmology use of eye drops is not recommended at:

  • to closed-angle glaucoma;
  • to open angle glaucoma;
  • keratoconus;
  • children's age till 7 flyings.

There is a considerable list of restriction to Atropine use. For example, its use is not recommended at various diseases of cardiovascular system, high temperature of a body, a reflux esophagitis, hernia of internals, diseases and disturbances of a gastrointestinal tract, increase of intraocular pressure, nonspecific ulcer colitis and so on.

Side effects

At treatment by Atropine the side effects affecting activity of the nervous, cardiovascular, alimentary system and sense bodys can develop.

Therefore there can be undesirable effects in a look: headache, dizziness, sleeplessness, confusion of consciousness, euphoria, hallucination, mydriasis, paralysis of accommodation, disturbances of tactile perception, sinus tachycardia, aggravation of ischemia of a myocardium, xerostomia and lock. Also fever, an atony of a bladder and gastrointestinal tract, an urination delay, various photophobia can develop.

As local effects it is noted: pricking and increase in intraocular pressure, irritation, hyperemia or hyperemia century, puffiness of a conjunctiva and so on.

Application instruction of Atropine (Way and dosage)

The full application instruction of Atropine specifies in ampoules that the formula of drug allows to accept it inside, to enter into a vein, a muscle or subcutaneously. In each case of disturbance a certain dosage and the therapeutic scheme is established. For example, during treatment of a peptic ulcer of a stomach and a 12-perstny gut the daily dosage for adult patients makes 0,25-1 mg which accept up to 3 times a day. The children's dosage depends on age of the child and can vary within 0,05-0,5 mg to 1-2-times reception in days. At the same time the maximum daily dosage cannot exceed 3 mg.

Use of drug in/in, in oil and p / to allows introduction 0,25-1 mg, 1-2 times within a day.

In ophthalmologic practice Atropine the application instruction recommends to appoint eye drops on 1-2 eye drop, digging in drug in each sore eye, on average 2-3 times during the day. Also means can be used parabulbarno, by means of an electrophoresis or in the form of eye trays.

Overdose

In cases of overdose there can be a strong dryness in a mouth, with a burning sensation, the complicated swallowing, the expressed photophobia, reddening and a xeroderma, high temperature of a body, rash, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia and arterial hypertension.

Influence on a nervous system can be followed by concern, a tremor, confusion of consciousness, excitement, hallucinations and nonsense, and also drowsiness and a stupor. Such states can end with the death caused by cardiovascular or respiratory insufficiency.

Especially hard cases demand elimination by means of administration of Physostigmine, purpose of Diazepam in exact dosages.

Control of passability of respiratory tracts is necessary and if respiratory insufficiency develops, then carry out inhalations with oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Emergence of fever demands use of cold compresses or rubdown by water, ensuring full consumption of liquid. If it is necessary, carry out urethra catheterization, and at the patient's photophobia well darken the room.

Interaction

This drug is capable to weaken influence of m cholinomimetics and antikholinesterazny drugs. At the same time drugs with anticholinergic activity, and also Difengidramin and Promethazine can increase efficiency of Atropine.

Combination to antacids which contain Al3 + or Ca2+, can reduce absorption of the main substance from a gastrointestinal tract. Some tricyclic antidepressants, Amantadin, fenotiazina, Quinidine, antihistaminic and other drugs with m-holinoblokiruyushchimi features can strengthen development of system undesirable effects.

Nitrates are capable to cause increase of intraocular pressure, and Atropine – to change parameters of absorption of the Levodopa and Meksiletin.

Special instructions

Use of Atropine at AV and, generally, is not recommended to blockade of the distal type accompanied with the wide QRS complexes ineffectively.

When solution drip in a conjunctival sac, it is necessary to press carefully the lower lacrimal opening to avoid hit of drops in a nasopharynx. Carrying out subconjunctival or parabulbar introduction is recommended with Validol co-administration to reduce tachycardia.

Terms of sale

According to the recipe.

Storage conditions

Storage of any form of drug requires the dark cool place unavailable to children.

Period of validity

For injection solution – 5 years, for eye drops – 3 years.

Analogs of Atropine

Coincidence on the ATH code of the 4th level:

Main analogs: Buskopan, Spazmeks, Spiriva, Tropikamid and Atrovent.

Apteka24

  • GNTsLS atropinases (Ukraine, Kharkiv)
  • Atropindarnitsa (Ukraine, Kiev)
  • GNTsLS atropinases (Ukraine, Kharkiv)

Paniapteka

  • Atropini sulfas of hot-smoked 1% 5mloz GNTsLS
  • Atropini sulfas of hot-smoked 1% 5mloz GNTsLS
  • Atropini sulfas of hot-smoked 1% 5mloz GNTsLS

BIOSPHERE

  • Atropini sulfas of 1% 5 ml of a drop glazn. OZ GNTsLS (Ukraine)
  • Atropini sulfas of 0,1%/1 ml No. 10 solution for in.amp. OZ GNTsLS (Ukraine)
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