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Biological methods of contraception
August 8, 2011
The biological methods of contraception called calendar or rhythmic are considered as classical traditional methods of protection from emergence of undesirable pregnancy. A basis of such method – full abstention from sexual intercourses during certain periods when periovulyatorny days are characteristic of a female organism.
In case of use of a biological method of contraception it is necessary to define at first carefully days in which the ovulation is supposed. They can be revealed by the following techniques: at the first stage basal temperature is taken, then the period of its rise comes to light, at the following stage it is necessary to find out whether the schedule of rise is constant. Now it is possible to watch basal temperature by means of the special electronic programming thermometer which allows to establish quickly all phases of sterility and fertility, using dynamics of basal temperature.
Careful drawing up schedules of a female menstrual cycle forms a basis for a basal way on birth rate control. This technique allows to watch the physiological changes happening in an organism throughout all duration of a menstrual cycle. The biological method of contraception gives the chance to define a functional condition of women's reproductive system, for example, of sterility and fertility. Such method of contraception is called still way of periodic abstinence, a technique of rhythmic contraception, a natural and natural way on planning of a family and excellent option for detection of fertility.
And if at a biological method of contraception it is focused on its "naturalness", it does not mean at all that other techniques of contraception belong to not natural and artificial methods on birth rate control. All biological ways of contraception are based on monitor control of all physiological changes which are connected with a female menstrual cycle and its current.
The World Health Organization defined that the way of control of fertility is one of the major ways on planning of a family or prevention of undesirable pregnancy by means of certain fertile days which are present at each menstrual cycle. During this period the woman needs full abstention (periodic abstinence) or use of other contraceptives for protection from pregnancy.
Therefore the biological method is not directly a type of contraception, it reveals only the periods, optimum for pregnancy emergence. At the same time the woman herself can decide whether it is worth choosing periodic sexual abstinence (abstinence) or during fertile days to it use of other contraceptives is the most preferable completely to exclude a possibility of pregnancy.
If several decades ago the biological method of contraception was used by 25% of couples, then now its popularity decreased, and such method of protection from pregnancy emergence now is applied by no more than 5% of couples.
Efficiency, mechanism of action and history of a biological method of contraception
About stories planning of a family in the natural way during the previous eras there is nothing it is unknown, but the data confirming supervision over the fertility signs arising in an organism which are observed during a menstrual cycle remained. In the middle of the XIX century the technique of cervical slime appears. For example, in 1876 doctor Maria Putnam managed to find out the fact that the basal temperature of a female body always changes throughout a menstrual cycle. Already in the thirties the XX century for the first time there was an opinion that the peak of fertility falls in most cases on the middle of a menstrual cycle. At the same time it was accurately established that, as a rule, the ovum from an ovary is released exactly in two weeks prior to the beginning of an ovulation.
So essential opening quickly led to development of a rhythmic or calendar way of Ogin-Knausa. Already in the sixties the XX century, it was revealed that the spermatozoa getting to an organism of the woman remain viable for several days. Approximately at the same time Evelyn and John Villingsy for identification at the woman of fertile days created a unique technique of cervical slime.
Despite reduction of couples using a biological method of contraception, testing value for functional diagnosis which helps to define nuances of women's reproductive system did not decrease still. Such techniques are easily feasible and quite simple though now there were latest methodological opportunities which to women were presented by modern medicine and pharmacology.
The symptoms, most characteristic of female menstrual cycle, in all cases give in to change during hormonal reorganization in a female organism. To the middle of each menstrual cycle there is an impoverishment of cervical slime at the expense of produced by the developing follicle of level of ekstragen. In the second half of a menstrual cycle all ekstragena in adrenal glands and ovaries reach the peak therefore cervical slime becomes elastic and viscous, quite often in the bottom of a stomach there are so-called ovulatory pains which contact a rupture of a follicle.
Watery and liquid cervical slime is characteristic of the second or progesteronovy phase of a female menstrual cycle, it is allocated in insignificant quantity, in a vagina quite often women feel dryness emergence. By the ovulatory period the increased basal temperature which the progesteronovy effect of heat generation significantly influences is observed. Basal temperature always remains quite high during the second phase of a female menstrual cycle. Such symptoms affecting change of cervical slime and basal temperature developing of long ovulatory pains are put in a basis by drawing up so-called schedules of periods.
But the biological method of contraception is not always a well-tried remedy for protection from emergence of undesirable pregnancy, in 20% of cases "contraceptive failure" is observed if this way of contraception to use regularly.
It is easy to reveal efficiency of a biological way of contraception by means of such factors as:
- motivation of a married couple and their desire to have the child;
- regular use of a way of sexual abstinence or other contraceptives throughout the fertile period;
- knowledge of a biological method of contraception, its features and accurate following to a technique;
- the menstrual cycle has to be regular with the identical extent of its phases.
Use of biological methods on monitoring fertility is intended not only for contraception, but also gives the chance to the women who are going to understand pregnancy in what days they have the greatest chance to become pregnant. In addition, the biological way of contraception allows the woman to understand physiology of own organism at quite deep level, to learn features of the menstrual cycle. Such way is considered one of options for the diagnosis of infertility and its subsequent treatment, identification of a premenstrual syndrome, at many women which are followed by irritability and pains in the bottom of a stomach.
Indications for use of a biological way of contraception
Today the biological method of contraception is most often used by married couples which cannot use other ways of planning of a family in connection with religious features or other reasons. Despite all advantages of a biological method of contraception, all married couples using this way on planning of a family have to realize accurately that such way of contraception is not characterized by a 100% guarantee. Even at the correct determination of basal temperature and accurate following to the menstrual schedule, the woman can have a pregnancy.
Contraindications for use of a biological way of contraception
Special contraindications for use of a biological way of contraception are not revealed. Some women meet difficulties with measurement of basal distemper, definition of symptoms of a premenstrual syndrome and scheduling therefore the technique directed to define fertile days is for them quite difficult. Other contraindication on use of the given method of prevention of undesirable pregnancy is process when the menstrual cycle has irregular character. It is undesirable to use a biological method of contraception also in the following cases:
- in a usage time of other contraceptives;
- during breastfeeding of the child;
- during approach of a premenopauza;
- during the period preceding approach of a menarche;
- in the presence of the diseases influencing early detection of all ovulatory symptoms which contact a female menstrual cycle;
- when using some medical supplies and medicines.
Recommendations about use of biological ways about monitoring the period of fertility
It is necessary to control carefully all changes of cervical slime, to regularly take basal temperature and to fix its changes in the menstrual schedule, to pay attention to emergence of all symptoms which contact a female menstrual cycle all this needs to be made every day throughout the full period of a menstrual cycle.
All changes of cervical (cervical) slime can be revealed as follows: it is necessary to define days in which the most transparent, elastic and very plentiful slime is emitted. At this moment at the woman there come fertile days when perhaps safe sexual intercourse, without emergence of undesirable pregnancy. It is recommended to abstain from daily sexual contacts, existence of two-day intervals between sexual intercourses is necessary. Such technique of the mode of sex life stimulates further conception, and also allows to control all releases of cervical slime more carefully.
Basal body temperature needs to be measured daily. If indications of the thermometer fix the increased temperature throughout the term, on duration exceeding the period of one menstrual cycle it confirms pregnancy. The way of identification of cervical slime is more efficient method of identification of the fertile period, than regular measurements of basal temperature. It is necessary to remember that basal temperature, as a rule, increases only in that phase of a menstrual cycle of which existence of an ovulation is characteristic.
Ways of detection of fertility
Four various methods urged to exercise control of fertility are now used:
- rhythmical or calendar way of contraception;
- traditional temperature technique;
- modern simptotermalny method;
- technique of cervical slime.
It is necessary to remember that any of these four techniques does not guarantee reliable contraception. The most ancient method of protection from emergence of pregnancy calendar way is considered. Such technique is based, first of all, on identification of fertile days. Besides, it is necessary to take into account everything the data on the ovulatory period obtained earlier exactly in two weeks prior to approach at the woman of periods (at a classical menstrual cycle 28 days long, at its discrepancy correction is necessary). It is necessary to consider that the spermatozoa getting to an organism of the woman remain viable for eight days and therefore can impregnate the ovum which went down from ovaries. At the same time the ovum is, as a rule, viable only within a day from the moment of an ovulation.
Considering that at different women the first phase of each menstrual cycle is characterized by various extent, besides, at one woman duration of phases of the menstrual period can change every month, fertile days need to be defined as follows. It is necessary to subtract 18-21 days from the shortest menstrual cycle for all the time of drawing up such schedules. And then still to subtract 8-11 days from the most extended female menstrual cycle observed at measurement of basal temperature. The calendar way of contraception by that will be more reliable, than the period of duration of fertile days is more long.
Quite often when determining by women of fertile days, the inaccuracies leading when using a rhythmic way of contraception to quite frequent emergence of the undesirable pregnancy arising annually at 14-50% of women are allowed.
Instruction for use of a rhythmical way of contraception
It is necessary to keep carefully the schedule of periods and all changes to fix in a so-called menstrual calendar, for eight months it should be noted duration of all menstrual cycles. In the first afternoon of each menstrual cycle day from which at the woman the periods begin is considered, and the menstrual cycle which last afternoon is already coming to an end date before day of approach of the following periods is. It is necessary to reveal duration of the shortest, and also the longest menstrual cycle.
There are special tables where fertile days taking into account specific features of each woman are celebrated. At first it is necessary to define the first "dangerous" day, using an indicator of duration of the shortest cycle of the menstrual period, and the last "dangerous" day needs to be fixed at the level at the rate of the most long menstrual period. During each current menstrual period on a special calendar it is possible to mark in the special color everything dangerous days, starting with the first and finishing with the last.
To prevent emergence of undesirable pregnancy it is necessary to pick up a way of contraception, optimum for you, one of three following:
- full abstention from the sexual intercourses during the entire period of "dangerous" days;
- it is possible to abstain only from traditional sexual contacts, replacing them with proctal and oral sex;
- to use other modern spermitsida and barrier methods of contraception, including a diaphragm and condoms, special foam or a contraceptive sponge.
Such method of contraception does not suit women at whom the irregular menstrual cycle is observed. If you are included into their number, then it is necessary to see urgently a doctor timely to establish the reason of the arisen disturbances. In the special table it is shown, to reveal properly the most probable days in which at the woman there can come conception. Calculations are based on the number of days in the most a little long menstrual period taking into account identification of the first "dangerous" day. In such calculations it should be noted also the extent of the most long menstrual cycle, especially celebrating the last day, "safe" for conception.
Before use of the special table as contraceptives, it is necessary to understand how it is necessary to calculate "dangerous" and "safe" days. It is necessary to remember that substantial increase of basal temperature does not show when there comes the ovulation, and only indirectly points to its development and approach. In 12-24 hours before approach of an ovulation basal temperature, on the contrary, significantly goes down, then its sharp rise on 0,2-0,5 °C follows. Therefore that part of a menstrual cycle is considered the fertile period, beginning from the first day and up to the moment when basal temperature remains raised for three days. It is necessary to understand that the post-ovulatory period which duration, as a rule, makes ten days begins after that.
Each woman at measurement of basal temperature has to use only absolutely exact thermometer allowing to reveal quickly even absolutely insignificant signs of temperature increase, otherwise all calculations made by it will be inexact. At the same time the indicators characteristic of basal temperature, it is necessary to interpret absolutely precisely, understanding that impact stresses, various chronic or viral diseases, sleeplessness and other factors can exert on them. At limited number of women of changes of basal body temperature does not occur in general.
Instruction for use of a technique of measurements of basal temperature
Basal temperature needs to be measured every morning, it is preferable to drink a cup of tea or to have breakfast still until as you will get up. On careful observance of a diet it is necessary to pay special attention, it is necessary to realize that use of other thermometer, developing of diseases, disturbances of a day regimen, including a dream, can sharply lead to essential change at the woman of basal temperature.
For exact measurements it is better to buy the special electronic programming thermometer which can establish phases of sterility and fertility. As a last resort, for measurements of basal temperature it is necessary to allocate the separate thermometer which is not recommended to be used in other purposes. Procedure needs to be made at the same time every day, putting the thermometer only to one body part. If you take basal temperature in an oral cavity, it is necessary to hold the thermometer only five minutes if temperature is measured in a vagina, or in a rectum, it is necessary to hold the thermometer seven minutes. All received indicators should be entered in the table at once.
Application instruction of a technique of cervical slime
The traditional technique of cervical slime is based on exact definition of all changes characteristic of cervical slime which control has to be exercised daily with obligatory record of all received characteristics in the special table. It is necessary to remember that after each syringing, characteristics of mucous allocations significantly change. At the woman at the time of developing of various vulval infections, or during the period following after their medical treatment also the amount of the emitted slime changes. Characteristics of cervical slime are influenced by also sexual excitement and use of contraceptive foam. For prevention of pregnancy the technique of cervical slime assumes full abstention from sexual contacts during periods, at approach of intermenstrual bleedings, and also at emergence of feeling of dryness in a vagina, at the same time the daily sexual intercourse even in days, "safe" for the woman, should be avoided.