Biopsy – diagnostic action which is connected with intravital capture of fabrics of any body for the subsequent its microscopic examination. Is an obligatory method of confirmation of the diagnosis at suspicion on oncological diseases, and also on existence of various anomalies. Thanks to modern technologies, the biopsy can at the same time take together with removal of the center of a disease. Except successful diagnosing of cancer new growths, such research helps also at diagnosis of not tumoral diseases. The liver biopsy directed to detection of features of a course of hepatitises is carried out, for example.

The biopsy by right can be considered as one of the most exact methods of research. The intake of fabrics and research them under a microscope gives the specialist not only important information on existence or absence of a disease, but also on its stage, extent of destruction of fabrics. Use of such method research together with other methods (a X-ray, immunological methods) can guarantee the highest accuracy directed by the diagnosis.


If the biopsy is carried out by the biopsy gun, the intake of material occurs quicker, than at other methods, however it is a little painful. The most painless is the fine-needle biopsy. The intake of fabrics which represents small operation is carried out under a local anesthesia and also is not a painful method.

Research methods

Histologic is a research of the taken fabrics under a microscope. The piece of fabric to be led up to a certain state by means of chemicals. Advantage of this method is speed of research, and the main shortcoming – not the highest degree of reliability.

Cytologic research is a research not of fabric, and cells. Not always there is a need of a fence of the whole segment of fabrics, and often the fence of cells becomes more optimal solution, for example when performing a smear from a surface of a neck of uterus. At the same time it is enough taken-away cells, and the intake of fabrics could be traumatic and dangerous. For the purpose of an exception of existence of pretumor diseases or early detection of a disease use of cytologic research also practices.

Carrying out technique

At diseases of various bodies and systems the biopsy and research of the received material is made by various methods that allows to consider most precisely specifics of a disease and to minimize traumatism at the best effect of research.

For example, the biopsy of a liver can be carried out by means of a special needle (a so-called needle of Mengini) when capture of a small piece of body to 0,5 gr. it is made under local anesthesia through intercostal space, excision of a wedge-shaped site of a liver under the general anesthesia in that case when the bigger volume of fabrics is necessary for research is also possible.

The biopsy of a neck of uterus can represent a smear or removal pieces of fabrics. Removal of a site of fabric is made by the laser or a scalpel, cone-shaped or any form, in one or several sites. The choice of a way of an intake of material depends research objectives.

The material intake and so forth usually comes from a mammary gland, a thyroid gland by means of a fine needle, several fences are sometimes made for receiving necessary amount of material. A biopsy practically of all bodies which are near a surface of skin it is possible at an opportunity to carry out by means of a special fine needle. In that case quite often the freezing of upper layers of skin becomes, in general the biopsy is transferred well and without complications.

Section: B