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Musculoskeletal system diseases
Every year growth of level of a tsivilizirovannost of society conducts to the fact that physical activity of the person significantly decreases. And, unfortunately, it first of all affects a condition of the musculoskeletal system (MS) of the person. In view of low mobility functionality the ODE goes down, and at the person the most various diseases of a musculoskeletal system develop. Specialists note that the most large number of such illnesses is diagnosed in the developed countries.
All diseases which affect a musculoskeletal system of the person divide into two extensive groups — arthritises and arthroses. At arthritises the ODE happens in a certain body inflammatory process, and at arthrosis degenerative disturbances in joints are noted.
If to estimate such diseases in general, then first place in quantity of cases is won by intervertebral osteochondrosis. In development of this disease in cartilaginous intervertebral disks changes of degenerative and dystrophic character gradually develop. As a result, vertebrae are deformed over time, and there is a rapprochement of their bodies. If the person is ill a long time, then at edges of vertebras small growths of tissue of bone which are called osteophytes accrue.
As a rule, there is a defeat of those departments of a backbone of which the strongest daily loading is the share. At osteochondrosis, depending on the place of defeat, the person unilateral, bilateral or central pain disturbs.
Pain becomes more intensive if the person lifts something heavy, there is a long span or actively moves. At rest, as a rule, does not feel pain of people. If the backbone palpation is carried out, then in process painful sites are found.
In certain cases at intervertebral osteochondrosis the radicular syndrome which is expressed in sharp pain on the course of a spinal nerve is shown. Pain arises as an effect of rapprochement of vertebrae, squeezings by osteophytes or infringements of a root of a spinal nerve.
Osteochondrosis, as well as many other diseases of a musculoskeletal system, initially doctors try to treat, applying conservative methods. Sometimes for elimination of pain it is necessary to provide observance of situation in rest of that part of a backbone which was struck. Not to allow movements in the affected joint, sometimes in the course of treatment the immobilization is applied. At the heavy course of the dissecting osteochondrosis the surgery sometimes is appointed to take bone fragments from a joint cavity. Generally osteochondrosis is diagnosed for men in an age category from 40 to 60 years. At the same time often find the osteoarthrosis striking knee joints, hands, coxofemoral bones in women.
If at the person Bekhterev's illness develops, then defeat of a rachis becomes its main manifestation. This disease also carries the name an ankylosing spondylarthritis. In development of an illness inflammatory process in spinal sheaves and intervertebral joints is observed that provokes pain. The patient is disturbed by backbone pain on all its length or in the field of the struck department of a backbone. Pain becomes intensive after the person a long time stays at rest, sometimes activation of pain is provoked by weather conditions. Except pain the patient feels constraint in the area where the struck department of a backbone is located. As a rule, pain disturbs in the morning. If the illness progresses, the backbone is gradually deformed owing to what the bearing considerably changes, creating a so-called "doskoobrazny back". This disease is more often it is diagnosed for men. Sometimes it conducts to a full immovability of a backbone.
Development of the deforming osteoarthrosis happens slowly, the illness gradually finds lines chronic. In this case degenerative and dystrophic changes happen in a hyaline cartilage. The osteoarthrosis is shown mainly as an effect of aging of a joint cartilage. High load of a cartilage to which it is not capable to resist is the reason of such pathology. Frequent the injury or disturbances in a blood-groove becomes the factor defining development of this illness. Not the last role is played in this case by heredity.
This disease develops at people with an excess weight more often, and also at those whose profession is connected with the strong tension and heavy lifting. Sometimes the illness is shown as an effect of inferiority of a cartilage, disturbance of a trophicity of a cartilage.
At an osteoarthrosis morbidity is expressed less, however the affected joints are much more seriously deformed. Most often the osteoarthrosis develops at the woman in the period of a menopause. Initially there is a damage of large basic joints. The first knee and hip joints, as a rule, suffer. If serious loads of a joint take place, then pain becomes notable and amplifies by the evening. The illness has several stages. At first the joint externally does not change, but if the illness continues to progress, inflammatory process of a synovial membrane of a joint develops. At the same time the joint swelling is noted, it becomes painful and hot. During a disease gradually the joint is deformed. Unlike a pseudorheumatism which symptoms become more active in the mornings in this case displays of an illness amplify in the evening. If the disease progresses a long time, mobility of a joint can be limited a little.
Joints are surprised also at development of a pseudorheumatism which is a system chronic illness of inflammatory character. As a result at the patient symptoms of erosive and destructive polyarthritis at which small joints of a brush and foot are surprised are shown. Initially at the person symmetric polyarthritis of joints on brushes and feet develops. Later in certain cases the disease also affects large joints. The patient suffers from the constant aching joint pains which are more notable at the movement. The affected joints swell up a little, their mobility is limited. One of the most characteristic symptoms of an illness is existence of morning constraint in all joints, including struck. After physical activity constraint disappears. If the illness progresses further, then muscles which adjoin to the affected joints will gradually atrophy. Manifestation of seasonal aggravations, continuous progress of an illness is characteristic of a pseudorheumatism. In the period of a seasonal aggravation at the person temperature can rise, at the same time signs of an inflammation amplify and new joints are surprised. Over time joints are considerably deformed, and mobility — is limited. At the same time often there are incomplete dislocations, joints happen unstable.
Gout – a disease which is shown as an effect of disbolism owing to which joints are surprised. Most often this illness is diagnosed for men who already were 40 years old. In development of an illness the exchange of uric acid is broken. In a cavity of joints sodium monourate microcrystals gradually collect. The illness has a krizovy current: periodically sick is overcome by so-called "gouty attacks" which mainly begin at night after the person the day before endured a serious stress, was traumatized, abused alcohol or proteinaceous food. As a rule, the illness begins with development of acute arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. In several hours the joint becomes tumescent, it reddens, becomes hot. The person disturbs painful pain, besides he develops fever, the health considerably worsens. Such attack sometimes lasts several hours, in other cases — several days. To accelerate the completion of gouty attack, reception of antiinflammatory nonsteroid drugs is appointed sick. Gradually the disease affects other joints. If gout disturbs the person many years and gradually progresses, then the illness gradually extends to a backbone, sinews, grudino-clavicular joints. Pain becomes a constant over time, besides, joints considerably are deformed.
Treatment of diseases ODE
At any disease the ODE existence of not typical clinical picture of an illness therefore for establishment of the exact diagnosis and purpose of the subsequent treatment it is required to address the specialist surely is possible. The majority of pathologies the ODE gives in to diagnosis without additional use of laboratory or tool methods. If diagnosis is carried out by the experienced specialist, then often it is enough to it to carry out careful survey and poll of the patient. But in certain cases nevertheless control hardware research is appointed.
As a rule, all diseases of a musculoskeletal system have one general sign – a dorsodynia. But very often the person does not pay attention to such manifestations, considering that osteochondrosis which it is optional to treat develops. Meanwhile, such wrong impression becomes frequent a fatal flaw.
It is important to consider that treatment of all illnesses connected with defeat of a musculoskeletal system is rather long and hard process. At the same time the patient has to visit regularly the doctor for control over treatment process. It is important to observe carefully all those recommendations about which the doctor speaks and to strictly follow the scheme of treatment.
Treatment of a musculoskeletal system is made on modern physicians in three different directions. First of all, the specialist takes measures for elimination of pain in the struck bodies. The following stage consists in prevention of further progressing of an illness and its stopping. The third stage of therapy is directed to reduction of all displays of a disease.
As a rule, at treatment of arthrosis, osteochondrosis and some other diseases it is necessary only an integrated approach as use of one method will hardly yield effective result. To provide a tone of muscles and to keep mobility of a skeleton at the appropriate level, patients are recommended to carry out a special complex of gymnastic exercises regularly. To normalize exchange processes in an organism and to provide replenishment of necessary minerals and vitamins, it is important to adhere to the balanced diet.
For ensuring purposeful treatment courses of medical massage and compresses practice. At the same time medicamentous therapy provides only a temporary relief at musculoskeletal system diseases. For this reason doctors strongly recommend to treat a musculoskeletal system in specialized sanatoria and clinics. Perfectly proved in this case sanatoria of Moscow area where comprehensive treatment which yields long-term result practices. In such establishments by the patient provide not only complex therapy, but also healthy nutrition, procedures, physical activity and all other conditions. The course of treatment in sanatorium proceeds not less than 18 days. Full examination and individual purpose of a complex of treatment is initially conducted.
At treatment of diseases the ODE mud baths are effective: mud cure of joints allows to activate all internal processes and protective mechanisms of an organism. But at the same time it is necessary to consider that treatment by dirt is an active method therefore it is impossible to practice it in house conditions without medical control.
Sometimes at treatment of such diseases also nonconventional methods, for example, yoga-therapy, acupuncture, ozonotherapy are applied.
Prevention of diseases ODE
Not to allow development of the diseases described above, the correct approach to questions of prevention is important. It is necessary to be engaged in it actively from children's age, stimulating a habit to conduct physically active life at the child. The daily morning exercises with obligatory warm-up, extensions and the main part have to turn into obligatory ritual. It is not less important not to allow a prompt set of excess weight, to provide the healthy daily nutrition. For strengthening of a musculoskeletal system it is useful to use daily fish, seafood.
Besides, both children, and adults are recommended to sleep on a special orthopedic mattress or on an equal rigid bed. You should not sleep on too high pillow. When sitting the back needs to be held directly, not to stuff up a leg on a leg. For the child it is necessary to organize the correct and convenient workplace at a table that in the course of sitting it did not bend a backbone. Also for maintenance of a musculoskeletal system it is regularly very useful to do swimming, to hang on a crossbeam.