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Diseases of a respiratory organs
The system of a respiratory organs of the person consists of the nasal courses, a throat, a trachea, a throat, bronchial tubes and lungs. Lungs of the person are surrounded by a thin connecting cover which is called a pleura. The right and left lung are in a thorax. Lungs – very important body as the blood stream directly depends on its work also. Therefore at pulmonary diseases at which pulmonary fabric is surprised not only respiratory functions are broken, but also there are pathological changes in a blood-groove of the person.
Activity of a respiratory organs regulates a respiratory center which is in a myelencephalon.
Reasons of diseases of a respiratory organs
The main reason for which at the person diseases of a respiratory organs develop are causative organisms. These are viruses, bacteria, mushrooms, and in more exceptional cases – parasites. As a rule, as infestants pneumococci, mycoplasmas, a hemophilic stick, legionella, chlamydias, a tuberculosis mycobacterium, respiratory viral infections, influenza viruses of type A and B are allocated.
In certain cases the illness causes the only type of the activator. In that case it is about monoinfection which is diagnosed more often. Less often at the person the mikstinfektion caused by several types of activators take place.
Except the specified reasons, external allergens can become factors which provoke diseases of a respiratory organs. In this case it is about household allergens which dust, and also domestic mites which often become the reason of bronchial asthma is. Also a respiratory organs of the person can suffer from allergens of animals, dispute barmy and mold and mushrooms, from pollen of a number of plants, and also from allergens of insects.
Negatively some professional factors influence a condition of these bodies. In particular, in the course of electric welding evaporations of steel, nickel salt are allocated. Besides, diseases of a respiratory organs provoke some medicamentous drugs, food-borne allergens.
The negative impact on a respiratory organs of the person is exerted by the contaminated air in which the high content of some chemical compounds is fixed; household pollution in premises, climatic conditions which badly suit the person; active and passive smoking.
As provocative factors also too frequent alcohol intake, other chronic illnesses of the person, the centers of persistent infection in an organism, a genetic factor is allocated.
Symptoms of diseases of a respiratory organs
At each specific disease of a respiratory organs certain symptoms are shown. However specialists allocate some signs which are characteristic of several diseases.
Asthma is considered one of such signs. It is subdivided on subjective (in this case the person complains of the complicated breath at attacks of hysteria or neurosises), objective (at the person the respiratory rhythm, and also duration of an exhalation and breath changes) and combined (an objective asthma with accession of a subjective component where the respiration rate increases at some diseases is observed). At diseases of a trachea and throat an inspiratory asthma at which the breath is complicated is shown. If bronchial tubes are surprised, an expiratory asthma at which the exhalation is at a loss already is noted. The mixed asthma is characteristic of a thromboembolism of a pulmonary artery.
The asthma occurring at an acute fluid lungs is considered the heaviest form of an asthma. Sudden attacks of asthma are characteristic of asthma.
Cough – the second of the most characteristic symptoms of diseases of a respiratory organs. Cough arises at the person as reflex reaction to availability of slime in a throat, a trachea or bronchial tubes. Also cough is shown if the foreign body gets to respiratory system. At different illnesses cough of different types is shown. At dry pleurisy or laryngitis of people suffers from attacks of dry cough during which the phlegm is not allocated.
At some diseases of a respiratory organs at the patient the pneumorrhagia at which together with a phlegm at cough blood is emitted is shown. Such symptom can take place and at some serious illnesses of respiratory system, and at illnesses of cardiovascular system.
Except the symptoms described above patients with diseases of a respiratory organs can complain of pain. Pain can be localized in different places, sometimes it is connected directly with breath, fits of coughing or a certain position of a body.
That the diagnosis was made to the patient correctly, the doctor should study complaints of the patient, to perform inspection and to inspect using a palpation, auscultation, percussion. These methods allow to define the additional symptoms allowing to make precisely the diagnosis.
At survey it is possible to define pathology of a shape of a thorax, and also the characteristic of breath – the frequency, type, depth, a rhythm.
In the course of a palpation it is possible to estimate extent of voice trembling which at pneumonia can be strengthened, and at pleurisy – weakened.
At research it is possible to define reduction of amount of air in lungs at hypostasis or fibrosis by percussion. At abscess in a share or part of a share of lungs there is no air; at patients with emphysema the content of air increases. Besides, percussion allows to define borders of lungs of the patient.
By means of auscultation it is possible to give an assessment to breath, and also to listen to rattles which nature differs at different diseases.
Except the specified methods of research also methods laboratory and tool are applied. The most informative are different types of radiological methods.
It is possible to define some purulent diseases by endoscopic methods which the bronkhoskopiya, a torakoskopiya are, and also to find tumors. Also by means of a bronkhoskopiya it is possible to remove foreign bodys which get inside.
Besides, methods of functional diagnosis by which it is possible to define existence of respiratory insufficiency are applied. And, sometimes it is defined still before the first symptoms of a disease appear. Lung volume by means of a method which is called the spirography is for this purpose measured. Also intensity of lung ventilation is investigated.
Use in the course of diagnosis of laboratory methods of research allows to define structure of a phlegm that, in turn, is informative for diagnosis of an illness. At an acute bronchitis the phlegm viscous, without color, has mucous character. At a fluid lungs the phlegm foamy, without color, has serous character. At tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis the phlegm greenish and viscous, has mucopurulent character. At lung abscess a phlegm purely purulent, greenish, semi-fluid. At a serious illness of lungs in a phlegm blood impurity is observed.
In the course of microscopic examination of a phlegm its cellular structure is defined. Also research of urine and blood practices. All these methods of research allow to diagnose illnesses which affect a respiratory organs and to appoint necessary treatment.
Considering the fact that diseases of a respiratory organs are one of the most widespread diseases, both at children, and at adults, their treatment and prevention have to be the most accurate and adequate. If not to diagnose an illness of a respiratory organs timely, then afterwards it is necessary to treat a respiratory organs of the person much longer, and the system of therapy becomes more difficult.
As medicamentous methods of therapy a number of means which are appointed in a complex is applied. In this case causal treatment (drugs which remove an etiology), a symptomatic treatment (eliminates the main symptoms), a maintenance therapy practices (means for recovery of functions which were broken in development of a disease). But only the doctor after complex inspection has to appoint any medicines. In most cases use of antibiotics, effective against the specific activator practices.
Besides, in the course of treatment of diseases it is applied other methods: physical therapy, inhalations, manual therapy, lfk, reflexotherapy, massage of a thorax, respiratory gymnastics, etc.
For prevention of a disease of a respiratory organs, considering their structure and features of transfer of activators, means of protection of a respiratory organs are used. It is very important to apply means of individual protection (wadded gauze bandages), staying in direct contact with the person for which the viral infection is diagnosed.
Let's consider in more detail some widespread diseases of a respiratory organs, their treatment and methods of prevention.
At development of this illness there is an acute inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of bronchial tubes, in more exceptional cases all layers of walls of bronchial tubes inflame. Development of an illness adenoviruses, influenza viruses, a parainfluenza provoke, a number of bacteria and mycoplasmas. Sometimes some physical factors act as the reasons of bronchitis. Bronchitis can develop both against an acute respiratory disease, and in parallel with it. Development of an acute bronchitis happens at disturbance of ability to filter air upper respiratory tracts. Besides, bronchitis often affects smokers, people with chronic inflammations of a nasopharynx, and also in the presence of deformation of a thorax.
Symptoms of an acute bronchitis, as a rule, arise against laryngitis or cold. The patient complains of discomfortable feelings behind a breast, he is disturbed by attacks of dry or wet cough, weakness. Body temperature increases and if disease very heavy, then temperature happens very high. Breath is complicated, there is asthma. In view of constant tension at cough breast pain and in an abdominal wall can be shown. After a while cough becomes wet, and department of a phlegm begins. As a rule, acute symptoms of an illness begin to abate approximately by fourth day and if disease favorable, then treatment is possible by 10th day. But if the bronchospasm joins an illness, then bronchitis can come to a chronic form.
At acute tracheitis the patient has an inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of a trachea. It develops under the influence of bacterial, viral, or virus and bacterial infections. Also the inflammation can develop under the influence of physical and chemical factors. At the patient hypostasis of a mucous membrane of a trachea, dry cough, a hoarse voice, the complicated breath is observed. Fits of coughing owing to which the headache develops disturb. Cough is shown in the morning and at night, temperature slightly increases, the febricula is expressed poorly. Acute tracheitis sometimes passes into chronic.
At laryngitis the inflammation strikes mucous a throat and phonatory bands. Doctors subdivide laryngitis into chronic catarral and chronic hypertrophic. Depending on intensity and prevalence of pathological process a certain clinical picture is shown. Patients complain of hoarseness, irritation and dryness in a throat, constant feeling in a throat of a foreign body, cough at which the phlegm separates difficult.
At antritis inflammatory process of a maxillary adnexal bosom of a nose develops. As a rule, complication at some infectious diseases is so shown. Antritis is shown under the influence of viruses or bacteria which get through blood or a nasal cavity into a Highmore's bosom. At antritis of the patient constantly increasing discomfort in a nose and area about a nose disturbs. Pain becomes more intensive in the evening, gradually passing into the general headache. Sometimes antritis develops on the one hand. Nasal breath is at a loss, the voice changes, becoming nasal. Sometimes the patient notes that nostrils are stuffed up alternately. Allocations from a nose can be or transparent and mucous, or purulent, having a greenish shade. But if the nose is bunged strongly up, slime can not be emitted. Body temperature sometimes increases up to 38 degrees, sometimes in addition above. Besides, at the person the febricula is noted.
Rhinitis, that is cold, is an inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity at which the congestion of a nose, allocation, an itch in a nose is observed. Rhinitis is, as a rule, shown as an effect of strong overcooling under the influence of bacteria or viruses. The allergic rhinitis which is shown at people who are inclined to allergic reactions is separately allocated. The illness develops under the influence of various allergens — pollen of plants, mites, hair of animals, etc. The acute and chronic form of an illness is allocated. Chronic rhinitis – an effect of external influences which break food of a mucous membrane of a nose. Also the illness can pass into a chronic form at the frequent inflammations arising in a cavity. This illness only the doctor as chronic rhinitis can pass into antritis or sinusitis has to treat.
Acute disease of infectious character at which inflammatory process of palatine tonsils and lymph nodes, regional to them develops. The activator breeds on almonds then it sometimes extends in other bodies, causing complications of an illness. After streptococcal quinsy at the person immunity does not develop. The disease begins with the general feeling of weakness, a fever, a headache. Pain when swallowing is noted, an ache in joints. Body temperature can rise to 39C. Gradually pain in a throat becomes more intensive. Submaxillary lymph nodes increase, there is their morbidity. The redness of palatal handles, a uvula, almonds is noted. Also on almonds sometimes there are abscesses or places where pus accumulates.
At pneumonia there is pneumonia under the influence of an infection. Alveoluses which are responsible for saturation with blood oxygen are surprised. The illness causes rather wide range of activators. Pneumonia is often shown as complication of other diseases of a respiratory organs. Most often the illness is noted at children, elderly people, and also at people with the weakened protective forces of an organism. Disease-producing factors appear in lungs, getting through respiratory tracts there. Symptoms of an illness are shown sharply: temperature grows to 39-40 degrees, the stethalgia and cough with a purulent phlegm develops. At the night of the patient strong sweating, and in the afternoon – weakness disturbs. If not to undertake timely treatment of an illness, the lethal outcome is probable.
Infectious illness which is caused by tuberculosis mycobacteria. At tuberculosis at the patient the cellular allergy, specific granulomas in different bodies and fabrics develops. Gradually lungs, bones, joints, lymph nodes, skin and other bodies and systems are surprised. If adequate treatment does not practice, the illness comes to an end letalno. It should be noted resistance of a mycobacterium of tuberculosis to different influences. Infection occurs in the airborne way. If at the person reveal a tuberculosis infection, then to him the full course of therapy by drugs against tuberculosis is appointed. Prolonged treatment, it takes up to 8 months. Surgical treatment practices in the started cases – the part of a lung is removed.
Prevention of diseases of a respiratory organs
To the simplest, but at the same time increase in time which the person spends in the fresh air is considered very important method of prevention of diseases of this type. It is not less important to air the room often.
It is necessary to refuse smoking, and also the regular use of alcohol as these habits affect respiratory system especially negatively. Harmful substances which are present both at tobacco, and at alcohol get into lungs and injure them, and also influence negatively mucous membranes. The lung cancer, and also emphysema of lungs, chronic bronchitis is much more often diagnosed for malicious smokers.
As other methods of prevention the special respiratory gymnastics, preventive inhalations from medicinal herbs, and also with use of essential oils practices. To the people inclined to diseases of a respiratory organs, it is recommended to grow up as much as possible window plants which produce oxygen in the house.
In general prevention of diseases of a respiratory organs consists in healthy and active daily way of life.
Section: Diseases of a respiratory organs