And whether you know...
February 5, 2012
Diseases of a backbone exists much, and practically each person, at least, once in life suffered from similar illnesses. First of all, dorsodynias, limited mobility in a waist, feeling of numbness in extremities, periodic headaches are characteristic of diseases of a backbone. These symptoms are shown at the majority of diseases of a backbone.
Most often diseases of a backbone begin to develop at young age, and from an onset of the illness before emergence of the first expressed symptoms sometimes there pass many years. During this time in a backbone of the person there are irreversible pathological changes. Therefore at the slightest suspicion on an illness of a backbone it is necessary to address on reception the specialist, early diagnosis will allow to stop an illness before it passes into a chronic form.
Most often today osteochondrosis, disturbances of a bearing and a protruded disk meet. Basic reasons of development of these pathologies doctors call slow-moving way of life, spine injuries, a regular raising of weights, sedentary work, a hormonal imbalance, existence of hereditary tendency to similar diseases. Refer existence at the person of a dysplasia of connecting fabric to the inborn reasons of development of diseases of a backbone. At such condition of a sheaf, joints, sinews are patholologically stretched and cannot fix normally all parts of a skeleton of the person among themselves. This phenomenon especially affects backbone ligaments in view of what they become unstable. In that case at the person the bearing is broken, vertebrae sink down, and the backbone becomes unstable.
Appointing treatment of diseases of a backbone, the specialist pays attention to, first of all, to remove the cause which provoked an illness.
At this disease intervertebral disks up to disk herniation collapse. At the similar phenomenon arise as backbone pains, and in certain cases – paralysis of extremities. As a rule, people of advanced age have osteochondrosis, however the illness can develop also in youth. A basic reason of a disease — bad food of intervertebral disks owing to dystrophy of muscles of a back and other reasons. The main symptoms of a disease are pain and a certain discomfort in spin, headaches, extremity pain, etc. Treatment of osteochondrosis is made by means of a number of conservative methods. At treatment the correct statement of the diagnosis and the subsequent integrated approach is important.
To diagnose a cancer of a backbone for the patient rather difficult, before the patient sees a doctor, as a rule, there passes a lot of time. The arisen symptoms – pain in spin – the person can write off for display of other diseases. Symptoms of cancer of backbone remind symptoms of other diseases: at this illness of people complains of emergence of pain below or in a middle part of a back. Pain becomes stronger at night, and also during exercise stresses. Gradually the patient begins to feel weakness in muscles, numbness of extremities, at it paralysis, and also total loss of sensitivity in hands and legs can be shown. For statement of the correct diagnosis it is important to exclude other diseases. Therefore at suspicion on a cancer of a backbone careful complex examination of the patient is conducted.
Educations in spin happen as primary (in this case they come from brain fabrics), and metastatic (secondary educations which are shown owing to oncological processes in other bodies).
To patients with a cancer of a backbone appoint complex therapy. The most radical method of treatment – removal of department of a backbone which underwent defeat. At similar operation there is a risk of damage of nerve fibrils. Today backbone operations are performed also with use of a cyber-knife (the radiation flow having an aim focus). With its help it is possible to destroy pathological education, without damaging at the same time the next fabrics.
As a rule, in the presence at the patient of cancer of backbone conservative treatment does not provide due effect. So, the chemotherapy happens effective only in rare instances. By means of traditional radiation therapy it is possible to overcome severe pains and on defined time to provide localization of the center of a tumor.
At use of correctly picked up scheme of treatment and carrying out operation with the help of a cyber-knife or a gamma knife forecasts on recovery of the patient positive. However in the absence of radical therapy of this disease after statement of the diagnosis of people no more than three years can live. The forecast is optimum if cancer was found at an early stage.
The kyphosis of a backbone is a curvature at which camber is turned down. The kyphosis is shown in chest department of a backbone, it is called also a syndrome of "a round back". In such situation shoulders of the person incline forward and down, the thorax is narrowed. At the same time the diaphragm of the person also falls down, the prelum abdominale is weakened. If the kyphosis of a backbone proceeds a long time, then at the patient wedge-shaped deformation of vertebrae can be shown, intervertebral cartilages collapse. At a kyphosis of a muscle of a back are exposed to stretching, muscles which create a front abdominal wall also incorrectly function. In view of changes in a structure of a chest cavity mobility of edges decreases, activity of intercostal muscles is broken, respiratory functions of lungs are limited.
The kyphosis is subdivided into several types. A physiological chest kyphosis and a sacral kyphosis – the normal phenomena for adults. At newborn children in the first months the total curvature throughout a kzada backbone takes place. The kyphosis of a backbone of pathological character goes beyond physiological bends. It is shown at TB patients, owing to spine injuries, rickets, sluggish paralysis. At a long current the kyphosis of a backbone passes in fixed, can not give in to elimination. If at the person the angular kyphosis develops, then owing to deformation of a backbone the patient has a hump. At a rachitic thoracolumbar and verkhnegrudny kyphosis the thorax is flattened and sinks down, the stomach droops, shoulders fall down and forward.
At treatment of a kyphosis of a backbone first of all it is necessary to correct a rachiocampsis. The special set of exercises which are developed for strengthening of muscles of a back, extension of a backbone, a pulling is for this purpose applied. Use of corsets with the corrective and unloading action, massage sessions, physical therapy is shown. It is important to adjust constantly a bearing of children of school age to warn a rachiocampsis. It is useful to do swimming, skiing. At the same time occupations are prohibited by weightlifting, cycling, fight.
If the kyphosis of a backbone is provoked by some diseases (tumors, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis), then the decision on surgical correction of an illness is often made.
At a kyphoscoliosis the pathological kyphosis and scoliosis is combined. It is rather rare illness, and till today there are no exact data on the reasons of its emergence. At an inborn kyphoscoliosis dysfunction of other bodies – in a chest and abdominal cavity is in parallel observed. The kyphoscoliosis acquired – result of injuries, diseases and other disturbances.
Spine injuries can be divided on closed, at which integrity of skin is not broken, and open at which integrity of integuments is broken. At the open getting spine injuries the firm meninx is damaged. The closed spine injuries can be subdivided on uncomplicated (functions of a spinal cord are not broken) and complicated (functions of a spinal cord and roots are broken).
According to nature of damages of a spine injury subdivide into bruises, damages of intervertebral disks, gaps and stretchings of the copular device, dislocations, fractures, dislocation-fractures, multiple damages.
The most difficult spine injuries arise, as a rule, at road accidents, falling, head bruises.
Often the injuries of a spinal cord arising at spine injuries provoke temporary or constant paralysis, an anesthesia. If at the patient partial injury of a spinal cord takes place, then in this case there is a partial sensitivity and some motor functions places of defeat are lower. At full injury of a spinal cord total loss of sensitivity and motor function is observed places of defeat are lower. But even on condition of full damage the spinal cord in most cases is not cut completely.
At the injury of a spinal cord arising owing to spine injuries there are following symptoms: pain or strong burning in view of defeat of nerve fibrils, impossibility to move, sensitivity disappearance, impossibility to control functions of intestines and a bladder, a problem with sexual and genital function.
Most often injuries of a backbone arise in a neck or in the bottom of a back.
The spinal cord comes to an end near a bottom of the first lumbar vertebra therefore at its defeat the spinal cord is not injured.
Even before statement of the diagnosis the patient who got a spine injury is given first aid directed to a backbone immobilization with the purpose to prevent its further defeat.
At statement of the diagnosis full research with use of a complex of methods is conducted: X-ray analysis, miyelografiya, magnetic and resonant tomography, computer tomography. Today there is a number of the techniques allowing to stimulate regeneration of nervous cells and to improve functions of nerves.
Conservative methods of treatment are generally applied, in more exceptional cases surgeries are performed. Surgical methods are applied at reposition of dislocations, to a decompression of a brain and stabilization of a backbone.
The word in Greek designates scoliosis "curve". Scoliosis of a backbone is considered one of the heaviest orthopedic illnesses. At this illness the whole complex of the symptoms characteristic of backbone diseases is shown. Development of scoliosis begins at children's age. Then process of deformation of vertebrae, intervertebral disks, zones of their growth begins. At scoliosis functions of a backbone are broken. Twisting of a backbone happens on a vertical axis. The rachiocampsis is also observed in the cross and longitudinal planes. At the heavy course of scoliosis of a backbone work of internals owing to squeezing can be broken. The rachiocampsis occurs to such an extent that he reminds a letter S.
Very often scoliosis of a backbone provokes complications, and especially often in this case the oprono-motive device suffers. At scoliosis of a backbone also flat-footedness and a relaxation of ligaments is often shown.
90% of people at whom in the childhood backbone scoliosis developed at adult age have radiculitis or osteochondrosis. Sometimes existence of a rachiocampsis is not distinguished at once, and later when the person stays at mature age, at it other diseases of a back develop against scoliosis.
Therefore, timely and correct treatment of scoliosis at children's age can warn serious problems with a backbone further.
Therefore any manifestation of changes of a bearing, the complaint of the child to pains in a backbone has to guard parents. The constant fatigue, a clubfoot, the neck curvature which are strongly acting shovels, joint pains, too strong mobility of joints can be other symptoms of development of scoliosis in the child. The child can behave too nervously, often fall. In that case it is necessary to address the specialist and to perform inspection of the child.
Treatment of scoliosis of a backbone is carried out with use of manual therapy and further rigid fixing of a backbone. Good results are yielded by regular performance of a complex of remedial gymnastics, massage courses. Without fail it is necessary to correct the child's diet: it is necessary to use the products containing a large amount of vitamins of group B. These are vegetables, cereals, a liver, black bread and bran.
To prevent displays of scoliosis, it is necessary to provide to the child an opportunity to sleep on a rigid and plain surface, to stimulate it to physical activity. It is important to develop a habit to sit correctly at the child. It is necessary to pass regular surveys at the doctor.
The term "spinal fracture" from the medical point of view is considered incorrect, the backbone does not break. Actually spinal fracture is a fracture of a separate vertebra. Owing to injuries there is a change of handles of a vertebra or body of a vertebra. The most often found fracture of vertebras — compression spinal fracture. In this case the vertebra is divided into splinters which disperse in different directions. The change of this type often occurs at patients with osteoporosis. Bones at people who a long time were treated by hormonal means become more brittle. After compression spinal fracture the person has sharp pains which are equally intensive at any position of a body. However it happens that similar spinal fracture passes practically without symptoms.
At a vertebra fracture in the field of a handle near an intervertebral joint at the person except severe pain the anesthesia of upper extremities is observed.
In view of the fact that owing to a change height of a vertebra decreases, after a change at the patient instability of a backbone can be shown. Also as complication after a change kyphotic deformation of a backbone is often shown. In a normality the kyphotic bend makes no more than forty five degrees. If the corner increases, then the person has a hump.
At suspicion on spinal fracture it is necessary to provide rendering ambulance to the patient. The diagnosis is made, being guided by results of X-ray inspection, computer tomography, magnetic and resonant tomography.
Therapy of spinal fracture first of all assumes reduction of pain in a backbone, and also stabilization of a condition of the patient to prevent further damages.
Later the doctor makes the decision on use of conservative or surgical treatment.
As conservative treatment orthopedic corsets which patients carry several months are used. If the change with shift takes place, surgical intervention is made. The recovery period to last after that about several months. Efficiency of treatment depends on that, the backbone is how seriously injured.
The hemangioma of a backbone arises because of pathology in development of blood vessels and is a benign tumor. A backbone hemangioma – rather widespread phenomenon. This education can provoke developing of pains in a backbone because of squeezing by a tumor of spinal roots. However, the hemangioma of a backbone can not be shown by symptoms at all, and it is found accidentally, during the general inspection. Sometimes the hemangioma takes all vertebra, in other cases education extends to several vertebrae or to a certain part of a vertebra. Most often the hemangioma of chest department of a backbone is diagnosed for patients, in cervical department the hemangioma arises much less often. Women are more subject to this disease.
Today both conservative, and surgical methods of treatment of an illness are applied.
Backbone hemangioma, developing, can injure a vertebra. For this reason it is very important to diagnose and cure a disease in time.
Prevention of diseases of a backbone
At modern realities of life the backbone of the person is exposed every day to too strong loadings. Therefore for the prevention of many unpleasant diseases of a backbone it is important to learn to distribute correctly loadings, to alternate various activity, to lead active lifestyle. Lifting weights, it is necessary to squat and, rising, to directly hold a back. During the sedentary work it is necessary to change periodically situation, to do small gymnastics of times at two o'clock. An excellent measure of prevention of diseases of a backbone is the dream on an orthopedic mattress – it will help to avoid a rachiocampsis.
It is important to control constantly a bearing, to watch a body weight, to eat the healthy food, products rich with calcium. Regular trainings physical culture and performance of a special set of exercises will also help to prevent development of a number of diseases of a backbone.