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January 11, 2012
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Bronchitis is a disease at which there is an inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of walls of bronchial tubes. Bronchial tubes of the person is a network of tubes, strongly branched and giving air which is inhaled by the person, from a throat in lungs. If the infection gets to an organism or there is an inflammatory process in bronchial tubes, then process of air circulation to lungs and is back broken. There is hypostasis of bronchial tubes, department of slime considerably increases.
In most cases development of bronchitis happens at once after the person has an acute respiratory infection or a catarrhal disease. In view of the fact that these diseases are rather widespread, bronchitis is also diagnosed rather often, and throughout life of people can hurt bronchitis several times. On condition of use of the correct tactics of treatment bronchitis recovers in several days after the beginning, however cough passes not so quickly, and proceeds sometimes in addition several weeks. At those who have bronchitis especially often, can develop afterwards chronic obstructive bronchitis.
Types of bronchitis
It is accepted to distinguish an acute bronchitis and bronchitis chronic. At an acute bronchitis the patient has an acute diffusion inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of a tracheobronchial tree. At the same time the number of bronchial secretion considerably increases, at the person the severe cough at which the phlegm separates is shown.
At chronic bronchitis there is a progressing diffusion defeat of a bronchial tree at which the secretory device of a mucous membrane is reconstructed, and the inflammation develops. The patient has a strengthened secretion of a phlegm, cleaning and protective function of bronchial tubes is broken. At patients for whom chronic bronchitis is diagnosed cough with expectoration is shown. At the same time the similar state lasts till some months in a year.
At acute and chronic bronchitis treatment of diseases considerably differs.
Bronchitis in children and in adults is caused by the same viruses which provoke emergence of ORZ or cold. But at the same time characteristic of bronchitis is the probability of accession of consecutive infection.
In certain cases developing of bronchitis can provoke long inhalation of a smoke, dust, gases with toxic influence. Also the hydrochloric acid getting at some diseases into a gullet and a throat from a stomach can provoke bronchitis.
It is important to consider that much higher risk to ache with bronchitis the smoking people or those who constantly inhale a cigarette smoke have. The last is especially important on condition of education of children in families with the smoking parents. At a similar situation at children bronchitis, a SARS, pneumonia, bronchial asthma often develops.
Also risk factor is easing of immunity owing to chronic or acute diseases. Often those who are forced to work constantly in those places where there is a high content of dust or chemicals have bronchitis.
The brightest symptoms of bronchitis are an existence of cough at which the phlegm opaque by sight departs. In a throat constant irritation, a sensation of discomfort is felt. At the person body temperature increases a little. If such symptoms of bronchitis are present at an extent of several days, it is necessary to ask immediately for the help the specialist. It is especially important to pay attention to similar symptoms if the patient has accompanying diseases, for example, heart failure or bronchial asthma.
At constant cough the separated phlegm has greenish or yellow-gray color, in certain cases in it blood impurity can appear. If during expectoration only the transparent or whitish mass of slime is allocated, then in that case the bacterial infection can be absent. Cough is a manifestation of protective potency of an organism which allows to clear respiratory tracts. But it is important that cough was wet, only in that case the phlegm can be removed from bronchial tubes.
During the normal work bronchial tubes produce every day about 30 grams of a mucous secret. Slime which is made during the normal work of bronchial tubes is important for performance of barrier and protective function. Thanks to availability of this slime the surface of bronchial tubes is not damaged, air which is inhaled by the person is humidified and gets warm, besides from it foreign debris are removed.
Slime contains many substances, active from the biological point of view, which are capable to improve local immunity of bronchial tubes. At hit in bronchial tubes of infectious or noninfectious activators of a cell mucous bronchial tubes are damaged. And owing to inflammatory process viscosity of slime increases, also its quantity grows. So breath of the person is at a loss, lungs work with disturbances, and in a mucous secret pathogenic microorganisms develop.
There are also other characteristic symptoms of bronchitis. At this disease of people often feels a spasm in a throat, morbidity of a throat, there are rattles and the complicated breath, body temperature can increase slightly.
Diagnosis of bronchitis
In the course of diagnosis of an acute bronchitis the specialist, first of all, carefully listens to bronchial tubes and the patient's lungs, using at the same time a stethoscope. To receive more exact results, at the same time, having excluded existence of pneumonia or other diseases, X-ray inspection is conducted. In most cases statement of the diagnosis happens without special difficulties by use of data of the anamnesis, and also information on existence of symptoms. But sometimes for specification of the diagnosis it is required to receive results of laboratory analyses.
For this purpose, first of all, the general blood test which results in the presence of bronchitis will be a leukocytosis, the raised SOE is carried out. At biochemical blood analyses reveal the overestimated level of proteins of an acute phase in blood, a superactivity of angiotenzinkonvertiruyushchy enzyme. Development of an anoxemia is in certain cases possible. In the course of diagnosis perhaps also carrying out
bacteriological research and serologic assay.
To distinguish existence at sick chronic bronchitis, the doctor studies a clinical picture of an illness, analyzing symptoms. In the course of poll of the patient it is important to find out whether that is a heavy smoker, whether there are no professional vrednost on a workplace, etc.
The X-ray of lungs not always shows changes, however the pneumosclerosis develops afterwards. At an exacerbation of chronic bronchitis the quantity of leukocytes can increase in blood. Also X-ray inspection allows to exclude diseases which symptoms are similar to symptoms of bronchitis: lung cancer, tuberculosis and other diseases.
For determination of passability of bronchial tubes, the size of pulmonary volumes, conditions of gas exchange are used special methods of functional diagnosis. In certain cases it is necessary to carry out a bronkhoskopiya, and also to apply other diagnostic methods.
Also at diagnosis of chronic bronchitis laboratory researches are made. Results of the general blood test reveal a small leukocytosis and some increase of SOE in the period of an aggravation. Biochemical analyses show the increased level of sialic acids, seromucoid. If the chronic purulent bronchitis becomes aggravated, then the analysis shows existence of SRV. Besides, in the course of diagnosis of chronic bronchitis the analysis and bacteriological researches of a phlegm, and also immunological researches is made.
Treatment of bronchitis
At an acute form of an illness treatment of bronchitis has symptomatic character. To the patient observance of a bed rest in well aired room, constant drink of warm liquids, hot bathtubs for legs, mustard plasters, banks is appointed. All these procedures are applied if bronchitis at children takes place.
Regular reception of means which have expectorant effect is important. It is Pertussinum, marsh-mallow syrup, nashatyrno-anisic drops and other means. If at the patient high temperature of a body is observed, then reception of acetylsalicylic acid, pyramidon, a Dimedrol, Suprastinum is quite pertinent. Antibiotics at bronchitis are appointed if pneumonia also joins a disease.
If at the patient the chronic form of an illness becomes aggravated, then treatment of bronchitis goes for elimination of an inflammation in bronchial tubes, improvement of their passability, and also on recovery of an immune responsiveness.
Antibiotics at bronchitis of this form are also appointed. However at the same time the specialist has to pick up an optimum course of reception of such drugs effectively to suppress activity of an infection. The course of antibacterial treatment will last what is the time, the doctor establishes in each individual case.
Antibiotics at bronchitis have to be selected individually, taking into account sensitivity of a bronchial secret.
Also treatment of bronchitis assumes use of some house folk remedies. So, the good effect of treatment brings use of inhalation with release of phytoncides of garlic or onions. Similar inhalations should be carried out twice a day. The course includes twenty inhalations. Sometimes to patients with bronchitis appoint physiotherapeutic procedures.
Existence of a syndrome of bronchial obstruction is characteristic of acute obstructive bronchitis. As a rule, this disease is shown at children during a second or third of life. At such form of bronchitis symptoms of bronchial obstruction often appear at once after the beginning of a SARS. In more exceptional cases obstructive bronchitis is shown in two-three days after an onset of the illness. The child pants, breath at the same time whistling, the exhalation is extended, and rattles is heard at distance. Children show concern, but at the same time their general satisfactory condition. At the child normal body temperature can keep. Thorax swelling is observed. Treatment of obstructive bronchitis is directed to recovery of passability of bronchial tubes. At the same time the same methods are applied, as at treatment of an acute bronchitis. However it is necessary to consider that pneumonia happens frequent complication of obstructive bronchitis.
Complications of bronchitis
Patients with bronchitis, especially its chronic form, often have a number of complications. First of all, diseases which the infection — pneumonia causes, bronkhospastichesky and asthmatic components, a bronchiectasia can become complications.
The second group of complications is provoked directly by development of bronchitis. It is emphysema of lungs, a pneumorrhagia, pulmonary insufficiency, a pulmonary heart.
Acute respiratory insufficiency becomes the heaviest complication of obstructive bronchitis sometimes.
Prevention of bronchitis
To prevent development or recurrence of bronchitis, it is necessary to refuse smoking without fail. It is not less important to eliminate all negative factors in work or in life which badly influence the general condition of the patient. After treatment from an illness it is necessary to accept periodically vitamin complexes and the strengthening means.
For the most effective prevention of bronchitis at children and adults it is necessary to treat at once all catarrhal diseases and inflammatory processes in a throat, in lungs. Both children, and adults should clear of a phlegm a nasopharynx in time, to treat diseases of an ear, a throat and a nose. In the course of prevention of bronchitis it is important to remove polyps, to change the bent nasal partition.
As the factor warning bronchitis further stay on the sea coast in places with warm climate is important.
For prevention of chronic bronchitis it is important to do special respiratory gymnastics, to become tempered constantly. Patients with chronic bronchitis have to pass regular surveys at the doctor.
To prevent development of bronchitis in children, it is not necessary to allow displays of cold of chronic type, in time to take all measures for treatment of inflammations of respiratory tracts.
At adults for prevention of bronchitis full refusal of smoking, and also of regular alcohol intake will be important. Similar abuses negatively influence the general condition of an organism and, as a result, bronchitis and other diseases can be shown.
Section: Diseases of a respiratory organs