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Bruxism (Scratch of teeth at night). Parafunctions of masseters
Bruxism – the scratch teeth at night caused by stereotypic periodic activity of a certain group of muscles. This type of pathology of dentoalveolar system appears as a result of disturbance of typical functions of a neuromuscular complex. For the first time the illness, as well as bruxism origins, was described by M. Karoly in 1901 which called it traumatic neuralgia. Later, in the second half of the 20th century a number of physicians, it was recognized as reasonable, to call this pathology parafunction of masseters. Parafunction is understood as the increased inexpedient activity, systematically arising tension or even a spasm of chewing and mimic muscles, and also language muscles.
Now there is a description of the following parafunctions:
- stiskivaniye of teeth;
- biting of lips;
- biting of cheeks or language, owing to the room of language between teeth;
- movements of a mandible forward or aside;
- biting of lips;
- scratch of teeth;
- rhythmical movement of submaxillary muscles and language.
Combinations of various parafunctions are most often observed. According to results of researches, children of 3 flyings and teenagers (to 21,4%), and also people of old age (6,3%) are more subject to a bruxism. Pathology occurs at men twice less than at women.
Explanation for it that parafunction of masseters arises against emotional overloads.
Origins of a bruxism (parafunctions)
The reasons of emergence of parafunctions of masseters are up to the end not studied and not revealed yet. It is considered to be that they arise in a combination of a psychological stress to adverse local factors, such as malocclusion, lack of some teeth, etc. One of the reasons, perhaps, cervical osteochondrosis is. As, teeth participate in many behavioural reactions of the person and his emotional state, for example, aggression, pain, fear, rage, there is an unconscious habit to grit teeth. At frequent repetition of situations there is a programming of parafunctions of masseters at the subconscious level.
Complications of a bruxism (parafunction)
As well as any failure in normal work of an organism, a bruxism leads to certain complications. The systematic stiskivaniye of teeth leads to hypertrophic increase in separate masseters. The bruxism can also cause emergence of fibroma of a mucous membrane of an oral cavity, red flat depriving, impression of prints of teeth in language (scalloped language), oral cavity inflammations under removable prostheses, muscular and joint dysfunction.
Such complications of a bruxism are also possible:
- cracks and chips of enamel;
- changes of crowns and (or) fangs;
- emergence of hypersensitivity of teeth;
- education on teeth of the peculiar "erased" platforms;
- wedge-shaped defects of necks of teeth;
- emergence of mobility of teeth;
- deformation of teeth;
- false pulpitises.
Owing to unconscious and uncontrollable load of jaws, breakdown of prostheses is possible.
Treatment of a bruxism (parafunctions)
From first-priority measures correction of a psychological state and, whenever possible, elimination of the reasons of an adverse emotional background is required. Perhaps, if necessary, instruction of demulcents of a natural origin (infusions of a motherwort, valerian, etc.).
The relaxation of masseters for the purpose of repayment of the strengthened pathological reflexes by means of weakening a cap, tires for the period of a dream during the long period is effective (of several weeks and longer).
Fight against addictions: abuse of chewing gum, tongue biting and cheeks, a habit to gnaw foreign objects. Often there is a need to put bridges and implants (fixed prosthetics) or orthodontic correction of a tooth bite.
Treatment of a bruxism, the choice of a method and means it is individual and is based on the general condition of the patient.