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July 23, 2013
Sneezing is a physiological phenomenon which is the instinctive protective reflex promoting removal of foreign bodys from respiratory tracts.
What occurs when sneezing?
When sneezing people it is sharply forced exhales air through a nasopharynx, it occurs after he takes a short and deep breath. Cough and sneezing differ in the fact that in the course of sneezing language is pressed to the sky, and air quickly exhausts through a nose.
Before emergence of a sneezing reflex in the person in a nose the feeling of a sverbezh appears, they takes a deep breath then lungs are filled with air. Further the soft palate rises, there is a reduction of handles of a pharynx, and language nestles on a hard palate. During sneezing of people involuntarily closes eyes then there is an involuntary reduction of phrenic, intercostal and belly muscles.
In the last turn during sneezing there is a reduction of muscles of a throat and a smykaniye of a glottis. Owing to all described changes there is strong intrathoracic and intra belly pressure, and the person vigorously exhales air. Exhalation of air happens to speed of 50 - 100 meters per second, at the same time pressure of air equals 100 mm hg. In expired air there are both parts of saliva, and slime elements which when sneezing can extend to several meters.
Why there is a sneezing?
Emergence of a sneezing reflex – a consequence of irritation of a mucous membrane in a nose. The reasons of sneezing can be rather various. Are closely connected sneezing and the allergy is a reaction of an organism to influence of so-called "dust agents" — dust, wool, down, pollen, a mold. Irritate mucous also volatiles — a tobacco smoke, aromas of perfume.
At sharp change of temperatures the sneezing reflex is also shown very often. For example, the person can begin to sneeze, having left the house in a bright sunny day or getting on frosty air. At the same time eyes sometimes water when sneezing.
At women frequent sneezing at pregnancy just before childbirth is sometimes observed. At the same time the woman notes also utrudnenny breath by a nose. However, cold at pregnancy can be shown on any its term as hormonal changes in an organism promote emergence of such symptom. And on early durations of gestation sneezing can be one of symptoms which testify to interesting position of the woman. Therefore sometimes sneezing is defined as an indirect sign of pregnancy, one among many others.
The reflex of sneezing defines the protective mechanism by means of which of respiratory tracts foreign debris are removed. However emergence of sneezing at diseases which are transmitted in the airborne way promotes transfer and distribution of an infection.
Sneezing at children most often happens at catarrhal diseases. The child can sometimes sneeze also without displays of cold but only because in a nose at it there are a lot of crusts. To stop this phenomenon, it is necessary to clear a cavity of his nose only carefully.
Frequent sneezing is observed in the mornings if at the patient vasculomotor rhinitis developed. Frequent sneezing and cold sometimes are connected also with a nose curvature owing to an injury, difficulty of breath, disturbance of self-cleaning of a nose. In the mornings the person can sneeze also at cold. Sneezing is often connected also with existence in a nose of polyps. Continuous sneezing is also shown if there is a drying of a mucous membrane owing to congenital anomaly of a nasal partition at the person.
Those who sneeze often and without a certain reason have hypersensitivity of an organism in comparison with people who sneeze only during serious cold.
If except sneezing at the person the itch is noted in a nose, but there is no cold, then, most likely, it is allergic reaction. In the presence at the person of also subfebrile or high temperature, most likely, it is goes about an acute respiratory viral infection. The SARS develops under influence both viruses, and bacteria. Sneezing at cold is shown at damage of airways. Besides, sneezing can be one of symptoms of flu, chicken pox, allergic rhinitis, measles, catarrhal diseases.
Sneezing at allergic reaction to specific factors of environment is shown rather often. Sneezing and other symptoms of an allergy are present if the organism is affected by allergen. As a rule, allergies are subject the people having to it genetic tendency. At an allergy of people sneezes attacks — this process can continue without interruption throughout a long span. Most often people, inclined to an allergy, sneeze when different plants and around a lot of pollen blossom. Allergic reaction which is shown on pollen of plants is called a pollinosis. Also allergic reaction of an organism often is cold at which of a nose transparent liquid is emitted. Except the described symptoms at an allergy at the patient eyes itch and water, there is rash. Several different forms of allergic reactions are defined. At allergic rhinitis the chronic illness is provoked by the inflammatory reactions happening owing to hit in mucous a nose of allergens. Development of vasculomotor rhinitis — a consequence of influence on an organism of nonspecific factors — endogenous or exogenous.
Except the specified reasons sneezing is shown at hit in a nasal cavity of foreign objects, at inhalation of the contaminated air.
How to get rid of sneezing?
At desire to constrain a sneezing reflex it it is possible to suspend only for some time, however it will not be possible to stop completely it. For suspension of a sneezing reflex it is necessary to clamp strongly nose wings by means of fingers and to take them so a little. But it is necessary to remember that the person at whom sneezing is shown as a result of any disease and should not constrain himself. The matter is that in the course of sneezing microbes, slime come to light. And if all this is late in a nasopharynx, then under the influence of pressure microorganisms can get into bosoms of a nose or in acoustical pipes that leads to development of antritis, otitis.
To get rid of sneezing at cold or a SARS, it is important both to treat these diseases in time, and to regularly take measures for strengthening of immune system. At cold it is necessary to adhere to a bed rest, to drink a lot of warm liquid. It is especially important to follow this advice if at the patient constant cold and sneezing is noted.
At flu the symptomatic treatment, in particular, reception of febrifugal drugs practices if body temperature exceeds subfebrile indicators. If at the same time there are cough and cold, eyes itch, the itch in a nose, snivels and sneezing is noted, then the doctor can appoint other drugs facilitating these symptoms.
Also at cold from eyes tears can constantly be allocated. Sometimes the patient even thinks of how to cause cold if it notes utrudnenny breath. In that case it is necessary to consult with the doctor. Severe cold which keeps several days and is followed by a nose congestion in the mornings demands use of vasoconstrictive drops. However nevertheless it is the most important to remove that cause which provoked a disease at treatment of flu and catarrhal diseases.
Sneezing at measles can be overcome only by the correct approach to treatment of a basic disease. This illness is very infectious, morbillivirus which provokes development of this disease, is transmitted at cough and sneezing together with slime. The illness generally affects children, but if in the childhood the person had no it, then mono to catch also about adult age. At the same time the course of a disease at adult age much heavier, than in the childhood. After treatment immunity remains on all subsequent life. At the first, catarral stage, severe cold and sneezing is shown especially strongly, to high rates body temperature grows. Rashes on a face are characteristic of the second stage of a disease. At suspicion on measles it is necessary to see a doctor who appoints the scheme of treatment for relief of symptoms.
Sneezing at chicken pox – one of symptoms of this widespread disease. In view of the fact that transfer of an illness takes place in the airborne way, through cough and sneezing the causative agent of an illness and will extend most often. Chicken pox generally affects children, rash on integuments is characteristic of it. If chicken pox is diagnosed for the patient, then he first of all needs to be isolated from collective. Rashes are processed by solution of potassium permanganate or solution of diamond greens. In the presence of complications antiviral drugs are shown to the patient, and at complication of a condition of the patient with a bacterial infection, use of antibiotics practices.
Treatment of an allergy – very difficult process demanding careful diagnosis and establishment of the exact reason of allergic reaction. At easy symptoms it is possible to do without medicamentous therapy, it is necessary to avoid allergen influence only whenever possible. At more severe forms of an allergy to the patient reception is appointed
corticosteroids, and also antihistamines. It is also important to lead a certain life – to find time for a regular hardening, to do physical exercises, to eat food enriched with vitamins.
Sneezing at newborns — absolutely everyday occurrence which it is not necessary to be frightened. To reduce the frequency of its manifestation, it is necessary to air only to a thicket the room of the child, to do regularly wet cleaning, and also to clean a nose of the kid in which slime and crusts collects. Besides, the baby can sneeze after feeding, and also at cold. To clean slime or to clear a nose at cold, the drug Aqua Maris which helps to soak crusts and slime is recommended to drip in a nose.
It is necessary to realize what to try to get rid of sneezing as from a separate symptom is impossible. It is necessary to establish its reason and to treat that an illness which provokes this symptom.