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What it is autism at children?
July 13, 2016
Autism is a diagnosis which many parents perceive as a peculiar sentence. Researches about what is autism what are an illness, are conducted already long ago, and, nevertheless, children's autism remains the most mysterious mental disease. Most brightly the syndrome of autism is shown at children's age that leads to isolation of the kid from dear people and society.
Autism — what is it?
Autism in Wikipedia and in other encyclopedias is defined as the general disorder of development at which the maximum deficit of emotions and the sphere of communication is noted. Actually, the name of an illness also defines its essence and how the illness is shown: a word meaning "autism" — in. The person having this illness never directs the gestures and the speech to the outside world. In its actions there is no social sense.
At what age this disease is shown? This diagnosis is most often made to children at the age of 3-5 flyings and call it RDA, Kanner's syndrome. At teenage age and in adults the illness is shown and, respectively, it is found seldom.
Autism at adults is differently expressed. Symptoms and treatment of this disease at adult age depend on an illness form. External and internal signs of autism at adults are noted. Characteristic symptoms are expressed in a mimicry, gestures, emotions, speech loudness, etc. There is an opinion that kinds of autism have both the genetic, and acquired character.
The reasons of this illness are connected with other diseases, psychiatrists claim.
As a rule, children autists have good physical health, external shortcomings at them are absent too. The brain at sick babies has a normal structure. Talking about how to distinguish children autists, many note that such kids are very attractive externally.
At mothers of such children pregnancy proceeds normally. However development of autism nevertheless in certain cases coherently with display of other diseases:
- CEREBRAL SPASTIC INFANTILE PARALYSIS;
- infection with a rubella of mother during pregnancy;
- tuberous sclerosis;
- the broken lipometabolism (the risk of the birth of the kid with autism is more at the women having obesity).
All listed states can badly be reflected in a brain and, as a result, provoke autism symptoms. There are data that a certain role is won back by a genetic favor: signs of autism are more often shown at people in whose family there is already an autist. However, what is autism and what the reasons of its manifestation are, still are up to the end not clear.
Perception of the world autistic child
Autism at children is shown by certain signs. It is accepted to believe that this syndrome conducts to the fact that the kid cannot integrate all details in the only image.
The illness is shown by the fact that the child perceives the person as "set" of the parts of a body which are not connected among themselves. The patient almost does not distinguish inanimate objects from animated. All external influences – touches, light, a sound – provoke a discomfortable state. The child tries to leave in himself from the world which surrounds it.
Autism at children is shown by certain signs. Early children's autism is a state which can be shown at children already at the earliest age – and in 1 year, and at 2-year-old. What is autism at the child and whether this disease takes place, the specialist defines. But independently to understand that for an illness at the child and to suspect him, it is possible, being guided by information on signs of such state.
4 main signs are characteristic of this syndrome. At children they can decide on this illness in different degree.
Autism signs at children the following:
- the broken social interaction;
- the broken communication;
- stereotyped behavior;
- early symptoms of children's autism at children till 3 flyings.
The broken social interaction
The first signs of children of autists can be expressed already aged till 2 flyings. Can be shown as symptoms of an easy form when contact eye to eye, and heavier when it completely is absent is broken.
The child cannot apprehend complete an image of the person who tries to communicate with it. Even on a photo and video it is possible to distinguish that at such kid the mimicry does not answer the current situation. He does not smile when someone tries to amuse him, but can laugh when the reason of it is not clear to none of close people. A face of such kid masklike, periodically on it grimaces are shown.
The kid uses gestures only to designate needs. As a rule, even at children about one year interest is sharply shown if they see interesting object — the kid laughs, points a finger, shows joyful behavior. The first signs at children till 1 year can be suspected if the child does not behave so. Autism symptoms at children about one year are shown by the fact that they apply a certain gesture, wishing to receive something, but do not aim to capture at the same time attention of parents, having included them in the game.
The autist cannot understand emotion of other people. As this symptom is shown at the child, it is possible to trace already at its early age. If at ordinary children the brain is arranged so that they can easily define at a view of other people, they are upset, cheerful or frightened, then the autist is not capable of it.
The child is not interested in age-mates. In 2 years ordinary children aim at the company – to play, meet age-mates. Autism signs at children of 2 years are expressed by the fact that such kid does not participate in games, and plunges into own world. That who wants to know how to distinguish at the child of 2 years and is more senior, just it is necessary to look narrowly at the company of children: the autist always is in loneliness and does not pay attention to others or perceives them as inanimate objects.
It is difficult for kid to play, applying imagination and social roles. Children in 3 years and are even younger play, dreaming and thinking out role-playing games. At autists symptoms in 3 years can be expressed by the fact that they do not understand what is a social role in game, and do not perceive toys as complete objects. For example, autism signs at the child of 3 years can be expressed by the fact that the kid for hours twists a wheel at the machine or repeats other actions.
The child does not respond to emotions and communication from parents. Earlier it was considered to be that such children in general emotionally do not become attached to parents. But now scientists proved that when mother leaves, such child in 4 years and even shows concern earlier. If family members nearby, it looks less looped. However at autism signs at children of 4 years are expressed by absence reaction that parents are absent. At the autist uneasiness is shown, but he does not try to return parents.
The broken communication
At children till 5 flyings and later the delay of the speech or its total absence (mutism) is noted. At this disease signs at children of 5 years are already obviously expressed in speech development. Further development of the speech is defined by types of autism at children: if the severe form of an illness is noted, the child can not seize the speech at all. To designate the requirements, he uses only some words in one form: to sleep, eat, etc. The speech, as a rule, incoherent, not aimed at understanding of other people is shown. Such kid can tell the same phrase which is not making sense for several hours. Speaking about itself, autists do it in the third party. How to treat such manifestations and whether their correction is possible, depends on disease degree.
Abnormal speech. Answering a question, such children repeat either all phrase, or its part. They can speak too quietly or loudly, incorrectly intone. Such kid does not react if he is called by name.
Absence of "age of questions". Autists do not ask parents a set of questions of the world which surrounds them. If questions nevertheless arise, then they are uniform, have no practical value.
Goes in cycles in one occupation. Among signs of how to define autism at the child, it should be noted also obsession. The kid can sort for many hours by flowers cubes, make a tower. And, it is difficult to return it from this state.
Carries out rituals every day. Wikipedia demonstrates that such children feel in a condition of comfort, only if the situation for them remains usual. Any changes – shift in the room change of a route on walk, other menu – can provoke aggression or the expressed leaving in themselves.
Repetition of senseless movements many times (display of a stereotypy). Autists are inclined to self-stimulation. This repetition of those movements which the child uses in an unusual situation. For example, it can click fingers, swing the head, clap.
Development of fears and obsessions. If the situation is unusual for the child, at him aggression attacks, and also self-aggressions can develop.
Early manifestation of autism
As a rule, autism is shown very much early – till 1 year parents can distinguish it. In the first months such children are less mobile inadequately react to irritants from the outside, they have a scanty mimicry.
Why children with autism are born, it is still accurately not known. In spite of the fact that accurately autism reasons at children are still not defined, and in each case of the reason can be individual, it is important to report about the suspicions to the specialist at once. Whether it is possible to cure autism and whether it is treated in general? Answer these questions only individually, having carried out the corresponding test and having appointed treatment.
What parents of healthy children need to remember?
That who does not know what is autism and as it is shown, nevertheless it is necessary to remember that such children occur among peers of your children. So, if someone's kid falls into a hysterics, it can be the autistic child or the kid having other mental disorders. It is necessary to behave tactfully and not to blame such behavior.
- encourage parents and offer the help;
- do not criticize the kid or his parents, thinking that he is simply spoiled;
- try to clean all dangerous objects which are near the kid;
- do not look narrowly at it too fixedly;
- be quietest and let know to parents that you correctly perceive everything;
- do not draw attention to this scene and you do not rustle.
Intelligence at autism
In intellectual development there are also autistic lines at the child. That it – depends on features of a disease. As a rule, at such children the moderate or easy form of mental retardation takes place. The patients having this illness hardly study in view of existence of defects of a brain at them.
If the autichnost is combined with anomalies of chromosomes, epilepsy, a nanocephalia, then deep mental retardation can develop. But if the easy form of autism takes place, and at the same time at the child the speech dynamically develops, then intellectual development can be normal or even above an average.
The main feature of a disease – selective intelligence. Such children can show excellent results in mathematics, drawing, music, but to lag behind strongly in other objects. Savantizm is the phenomenon when the autist it is very expressed is gifted in one certain area. Some autists are capable to play a melody precisely, having heard it only once, or to calculate the most difficult examples in mind. The famous autists of the world – Albert Einstein, Andy Kauffman, Woody Allen, Andy Warhol and many others.
There are certain types of autichesky frustration, among them there is Asperger's syndrome. It is considered to be that it is an easy form of autism which first signs appear already at later age – approximately after 7 flyings. Such diagnosis assumes the following features:
- normal or high I.Q.;
- normal speech skills;
- problems with the loudness of the speech and intonation are noted;
- obsession with any occupation or studying of the phenomenon;
- lack of coordination of movements: strange poses, clumsy walking;
- egocentricity, lack of ability to compromises.
Such people conduct rather normal life: study in educational institutions and at the same time can make progress, establish families. But all this occurs provided that for them the correct conditions are created, there are an adequate education and support.
It is a serious illness of a nervous system, the reasons of its emergence are connected with disturbances in X-chromosome. Only girls as at such disturbances the male fruit perishes in mother's womb are ill it. Frequency of this illness makes 1:10000 girls. When the child has this syndrome, such signs are noted:
- the deep autichnost isolating the child from the outside world;
- normal development of the kid in the first 0,5-1,5 years;
- slow growth of the head after this age;
- loss of purposive movements of hands and skills;
- the movements by hands – like handshake or washing;
- disappearance of skills of the speech;
- the worsened coordination and bad physical activity.
How to define Rhett's syndrome is a question to the specialist. But this condition of mute differs from classical autism. So, at this syndrome doctors define epileptic activity, a brain underdevelopment. At this illness the forecast adverse. In this case any methods of correction are ineffective.
How diagnose autism?
Externally such symptoms at newborns cannot be defined. However on as soon as possible to define autism signs at newborns, scientists work for a long time.
Most often the first signs of such state are noticed at children by parents. Especially early the autistic behavior is defined by those parents in whose family there are already small children. It is necessary to consider in what family there is an autist that this such disease which needs to try to be diagnosed as soon as possible. The earlier to reveal autism, the it is more than chances at such kid adequately to feel in society and to live normally.
The test with special questionnaires
At suspicion on children's autism diagnosis is carried out by means of polls of parents, and also studying of how the kid in Wednesday, usual for it, behaves. The following tests are applied:
- Supervision scale for diagnosis of autism (ADOS)
- Questionnaire for diagnosis of autism (ADI-R)
- Scale of a rating of children's autism (CARS)
- Behavioural questionnaire for diagnosis of autism (ABC)
- Check list of an assessment of indicators of autism (ATEC)
- Questionnaire on autism at small children (CHAT)
Such methods are applied:
- carrying out ultrasonography of a brain – for the purpose of an exception of the injuries of a brain provoking symptoms;
- EEG – for the purpose of definition of attacks of epilepsy (sometimes autism is followed by these manifestations);
- check of hearing of the child – to exclude a speech arrest of development in view of relative deafness.
It is important to parents to apprehend correctly behavior of the child who suffers from autism.
|Adults see||It NOT||Perhaps, it|
|Shows forgetfulness, a disorganization||Manipulations, laziness, absence of desire to do something||Misunderstanding of expectations of parents or other people, high uneasiness, reaction to a stress and change, attempt of regulation of touch systems|
|Prefers monotony, resists changes, is upset because of changes, prefers to repeat actions||Obstinacy, refusal to cooperate, rigidity||Uncertainty how to follow instructions, aspiration to keep a usual order, impossibility to assess a situation from outside|
|Does not carry out the instruction, it is impulsive, does provocations||Egoism, disobedience, desire always to come under the spotlight||It is difficult for it to understand the general and abstract concepts, it is difficult to process information|
|Avoids lighting and some sounds, does not look to anybody in the face, rotates, touches, smells foreign objects||Disobedience, bad behavior||It badly processes corporal and touch signals, high visual, sound, olfactory sensitivity|
Treatment of autism
It is treated or not this state, most of all interests parents of such kids. Unfortunately, the answer to the question "Whether Autism Is Treated?" is unambiguous: "No, it is not treated".
But, in spite of the fact that the illness is not curable, it is possible to correct a situation. Best "treatment" in this case – regular trainings every day and creation of the optimum environment for the autist.
Such actions actually are very big work, both parents, and teachers. But such means it is possible to make great progress.
How to bring up the kid autist
- To realize who such autist, and the fact that autism is mode of existence. That is, such kid is capable to think, look, hear, feel not as most of people.
- To take care of the most favorable environment for this purpose who suffers from autism that it could develop and study. The adversity and changes in the schedule badly affect the autist and force it to retire into oneself even more deeply.
- To consult with specialists – the psychiatrist, the psychologist, the logopedist and others.
How to treat autism, stages
- To create skills which are necessary for training. If the child does not make contact, gradually to establish it, without forgetting who it are autists. It is gradually necessary to develop, at least, speech rudiments.
- To eliminate the behavior forms which are not constructive: aggression, self-aggression, fears, leaving in, etc.
- To learn to observe, imitate.
- To teach social games and roles.
- To learn to make emotional contact.
Behavioural therapy of autism
The most widespread treatment of autism practices agrees with the principles of a behaviorism (behavioural psychology).
One of subtypes of such therapy is an AVA-therapy. The basis of this treatment consists in observing how reactions and behavior of the kid look. After all features are studied, incentives for the specific autist are selected. For one children that is the favourite dish, for others – musical motives. Further support with such encouragement all desirable reactions. That is, if the kid made everything as it is necessary, then he will be promoted. So contact develops, there is a fixing of abilities and signs of destructive behavior disappear.
Despite autism degree, at such children these or those difficulties with speech development are noted that prevents normal communication with people. If the kid is regularly engaged with the logopedist, he adjusts intonation, a pronunciation.
Development of skills of independent service and socialization
Autists have no motivation to play, do daily things. They difficult adapt to maintenance of personal hygiene, a daily routine. To fix the necessary skill, use cards on which the order of performance of such actions is drawn or written.
Therapy by medicines
To treat autism medicamentous means it is admissible only if the destructive behavior of the little patient interferes with his development. However it is tiresome to parents to remember that any reaction of the autist – crying, shout, a stereotypy is a peculiar contact with the outside world. It is worse if the child retires into oneself for the whole days.
Therefore any soothing and psychotropic drugs are admissible to be applied only according to strict indications.
There are some opinions which are rather national, than scientific. For example, data that the bezglyutenovy diet helps to cure the autist scientifically are not confirmed.
Some methods not only do not bring benefit, but also can be dangerous to the patient. It is about use of glycine, stem cells, micropolarization, etc. Such methods can be very harmful to autists.
States which imitate autism
ZPRR with autistic lines
Symptoms of this disease are connected with a delay of psychospeech development. They are in many respects similar to autism signs. Since the earliest age, the kid does not develop in respect of the speech as it is assumed by the existing norms. In the first months of life he does not murmur, further does not learn to tell simple words. In 2-3 years its lexicon is very poor. Such children are often poorly developed physically, are sometimes hyperactive. The diagnosis is finalized by the doctor. It is important to visit with the child of the psychiatrist, the logopedist.
Syndrome of deficit of attention and hyperactivity
This state is also often taken for autism. At deficit of attention children are restless, they difficult are given training at school. There are problems with concentration of attention, such children are very mobile. Even at adult age echoes of this state remain, it is difficult to such people to remember information, to make decisions. It is necessary to try to diagnose this state as soon as possible, to practice treatment by psychostimulants and the calming drugs, and also to visit the psychologist.
It is a various hearing disorder inborn and acquired. At hearing-impaired children also the speech delay is noted. Therefore such children badly respond addressed to, satisfy requests and can seem disobedient. At the same time parents can suspect autism at children. But the professional psychiatrist will surely direct the kid to inspection of acoustical function. The hearing aid will help to solve problems.
Earlier autism was considered as one of displays of schizophrenia at children. However now it is clear that it is two absolutely different diseases. Schizophrenia at children begins later – in 5-7 years. Symptoms of this illness are shown gradually. Such children have persuasive fears, talk to themselves, the nonsense and hallucinations are shown later. Treat this state medicamentally.
It is important to understand that autism is not a sentence. On condition of the correct leaving, the earliest correction of autism and support from specialists and parents such kid can fully live, study and find happiness, having become the adult.