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Depressions at children
The depression at children is one of mental and emotional disorders, shown in behavioural changes. The depression at children's age differs from a depression at adults. If the child is sad or irritable, it not necessarily means existence of a depression at it. It can be the normal emotional and psychological change which is shown during growth.
But if depression symptoms at children become steady and is destructive influence social activity of the child, then it can indicate that the child has a depression. The behavior of the child can become uncontrollable, he clashes with people around, passes school that leads to decrease in progress at school. The child can begin to take alcoholic drinks, to smoke, can contact "the bad company", can even reach thoughts of suicide.
The depression can be shown even at babies, but arises at the children deprived of parent attention, who are in nursing homes, children's homes more often. Negative symptoms tend to collect, children constantly cry, they lack parent love and heat. At a severe form of a depression there can be hallucinations, illusions. Usually children's depression to last from 1 month to one year, often and longer. Prevention of children's depressions and consultation at the psychiatrist of all family members is very important in such cases.
The depression reasons at children
Exact origins of a depression are unknown probably here decisive several factors — hereditary, physiological, psychological, social are. Separation from mother and a family because of the placement to kindergarten can exert a negative impact on children of younger age, for children the 5th flying — scandals in a family, divorce of parents is more senior. Since 7 school problems — change of a class, the bad relation of the teacher, quarrel with schoolmates become the most important factors of a depression.
Most often children's depressions are shown after emotional shocks — losses of parents, other relatives, death of a favourite pet, quarrels with friends, from the been psychological pressure.
Children can have complex depression reasons, that is be shown by disturbance of health, the relations in a family, various biochemical changes in an organism, physical or sexual abuse.
Depressions children whose parents have a depression, alcoholism, and in families with the healthy relations and climate are especially subject, children most often independently solve the arising psychological problems.
There are also seasonal depressions connected with sensitivity of an organism to changes of climatic conditions. Symptoms of a depression can be caused by reception of certain medicines — the steroids anesthetizing as a part of which there are narcotic substances.
Depression symptoms at children
Symptoms of a children's depression differ from depression symptoms at adults. At children treat primary symptoms of a depression: irrational fears, grief, feeling of helplessness, sharp differences of mood. Also sleep disorders (sleeplessness, drowsiness, nightmares), appetite disturbances, reduction of social activity, feeling of constant fatigue, aspiration to self-isolation, a low self-assessment, problems with memory and concentration of attention, emergence of thoughts of death, a suicide can be shown.
Elements of non-standard behavior — sharp causeless unwillingness to play favourite games are often shown, it is observed unfairly aggressive reactions, children become rebellious and irritable, "everything is not pleasant to them". Uneasiness at having a depression most strongly are shown in evening and night time.
Typical symptoms of a depression at children — somatic symptoms, complaints to an illness, to various pains (a headache, tooth, an abdominal pain) which are not treated medicamentally. Panic and neurotic frustration — the tachycardia, dizzinesses, nausea, a fever which are often followed by fear of death can be observed. The depression at children most often masks under uneasiness, decrease in progress at school, disturbances of communication with peers, apathy. Similar indispositions can be as various, sharply replacing each other, and monotonous with one complaint.
Various symptoms of a depression at children differ at various children's age. For example, development of children of the first year of life becomes complicated heavy displays of a depression less often. At small children appetite decreases, they become more whimsical.
At preschool children it is most often observed disorders of physical activity, change in health — frequent headaches, a gastric disturbance, and also aspiration to loneliness, grief, a lack of energy, fears of darkness, loneliness, crying attacks. At younger school children become closed, shy, diffident, lose interest in occupations, games, complain of "melancholy", "boredom", "desire to cry".
Than closer to adolescence, especially irritability symptoms, decrease in mood, grief are expressed. At a depression the increased tearfulness, readiness for crying at the slightest occasion is observed. Children react to notes of adults with hypersensitivity. At school children can become scattered, leave notebooks at home, do not understand read, easily forget learned. Sluggishness, slackness, unwillingness to attend sports classes can be observed.
Diagnosis of a depression at children
If you had suspicions that your child is sick with a depression, it is worth showing consideration for it. It is necessary to belong attentively and sensitively to a state of mind of the child, quietly to say with it about what disturbs him, to talk frankly, not to shout and not to press at it. If the child is disturbed by sense of guilt, explain to him that he does not bear responsibility for the events. If the dejectedness drags on longer, than for 3 weeks, it is worth addressing the children's psychiatrist.
Many parents try to cope with illness symptoms independently – treat pain tablets, isolate the child from peers, allow not to go to school. However it is incorrect, the children's psychology very difficult thing, not created mentality of the child still brittle and is better to entrust treatment to the specialist. The earlier you address the specialist, the it will be easier for the child to leave a disease state. For the school students and teenagers having a depression early diagnosis of a depression at children is possible. The diagnosis is made on the basis of physical survey, psychological tests, laboratory researches.
Treatment of a depression at children
Treatment of a depression includes sessions of medical psychotherapy, at lingering depression the antidepressive medicamentous drugs appointed by the doctor, continuous estimation of a state can be used, also psychiatric treatment is possible. Treat psychotherapeutic methods of treatment: the cognitive and behavioural therapy directed to development at children of a certain mentality, behavior, the elements of interpersonal therapy focused on adjustment of the relation of the child with people around and also family therapy in which all family takes part. Children's depressions at the most small children treat use of methods of game therapy. Fluoxetine — the only antidepressant approved for the use by children belongs to medicamentous drugs.
Atypical antidepressants (bupropion) and tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, desipramine) having a number of side effects are less often applied. It is important to note that safety of antidepressants at the use by children is up to the end not studied.
The greatest efficiency was proved by the treatment method combining sessions of cognitive and behavioural therapy and regular reception of fluoxetine. At very started options of a disease hospitalization is possible. It is necessary to show sympathy and understanding, its derivation from burdensome thoughts, switching on what is interesting to the child. Treatment of a depression at children in house conditions includes the balanced food, a regular training sport, a full-fledged dream. It is necessary to communicate more with the child, to listen to his problems, to show sympathy, to adjust on the best.
Prevention of children's depressions
The risk of developing of a depression can be reduced if to bring up the child in families with a quiet psychological situation where the relations balanced and kind. It is important to respect the child and his moods as in a family, so in kindergarten, school. The child will better feel among the people understanding and accepting him it what he is. The unconditional parent love serves as the base of healthy mentality of the child. It is necessary that the child played sports, had some hobby, could implement itself in it. Long foot walks, healthy nutrition, a healthy sleep are useful. It is necessary to spend with it much time — to talk, to jointly solve the arising problems.
Section: Mental, depressive disorders