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The urology is very big section of modern medicine in which treatment of pathologies of an urinary system is considered. The bladder, kidneys, an urethra, a prostate gland, external genitals enter it.
Earlier both adult, and the nursery urologists were part of the surgical section of medicine. In the first decades of the twentieth century the surgery and urology were divided.
What children's urologists are engaged in
The children's urology in modern medicine is a section which is responsible for treatment of diseases of urinogenital bodies at children. All processes which are characteristic of a children's organism differ in certain anatomo-physiological features and patterns of a current. Besides, it is already proved that it is better to carry out many operative measures at which inborn defects and anomalies of development are adjusted at children's age. For this reason any department of children's urology practices treatment of a large number of various diseases. The majority of diseases of urinogenital bodies which take place at adult patients are observed also at children. However there are also those illnesses which are shown only at children. For example, bed wetting is an illness which is characteristic only for children.
Any center of children's urology also offers services of diagnosis for which doctors urologists show consideration especially. The matter is that small children are not capable to describe in details and completely symptoms of a disease which disturbs it. For this reason the children's andrology is based also on a wide experience of doctors who have to always be able to establish correctly the diagnosis, based on rather scanty data.
Main symptoms of urological diseases
Parents have to pay attention to a number of signs which demonstrate disturbances in functioning of urinogenital system. First of all, it is about existence of changes in results of analyses of urine. However, even without carrying out laboratory researches parents can notice that urine of the kid became muddy, changed color, it had an unpleasant smell. Analyses of urine to children carry out periodically — in the first months of life, and then with an interval in two years for preventive research.
One more often found symptom which causes concern in the child's parents is disturbances of an urination. The child can complain of morbidity in the course of an urination, besides, he can urinate too seldom. But the most dangerous symptom — total absence of urinations. Also a symptom of an illness is the urine incontience. Sometimes in that case it is about enuresis — the pathology demanding treatment.
Pain in kidneys of which the child complains is also a supply for the address to the doctor. However children cannot often define, pain is shown where exactly, showing just on a stomach. Sometimes renal pains at the child are accompanied by abdominal distention and vomiting. At such signs it is necessary to see a doctor immediately.
Parents can sometimes find a tumor in the child in a waist or in a stomach. If tumorous education is groped, then it can appear a kidney which is incorrectly located, or the crowded bladder. But consultation at the children's urologist should be passed.
Basic urological diseases
The urinary system of the person consists of two kidneys which are located in a waist on both sides from a backbone under edge of a costal arch. The kidney is penetrated by tubules which open in renal cups and a pelvis which passes into the ureter falling into a bladder.
The doctor-urologist in the course of diagnosis defines different children's urological diseases. It should be noted what at children of early age of frustration of an urination, as a rule, is not defined as serious by pathologists. Day or bed wetting aged till two years is natural process at the kid. The incontience of urine is considered to be as a disease at girls to whom 4 years, and at boys after five-year age were executed.
Also children's urologists are engaged in definition and the subsequent therapy of a number of diseases. These are different forms of dysfunction of a bladder, an infection of urinary tract, both acute, and chronic, inborn malformations of an urinary system, and also external genitals.
As the medical statistics testifies, these or those problems in functioning or a structure of bodies of urinogenital system are observed practically at every third child. Quite often the doctor notes that aggravation of an urological problem at the child is a result of the untimely address to the specialist. At the same time, if children's urological diseases come to light at once after emergence of the first symptoms or suspicions, then the doctor can help to correct as anomaly of development of uric system, and to promote normal adaptation of psycho-sexual character. Therefore doctors insistently advise parents to show consideration for a state of health and for complaints of the child.
When it is necessary to address the urologist?
As a rule, the majority of urological diseases at children are inborn. The acquired diseases are diagnosed for adult patients more often. Often pathologies of development of this system can be defined at the child even before childbirth or directly in a maternity home. If the child has anomalies of development of external genitals, then the pediatrician will easily find them right after appearance of the child on light and will direct the kid to inspection to the urologist. By the way, the children's urologist in the course of research informs parents and on how it is necessary to look after generative organs of the child as the correct hygiene considerably reduces risk of developing of diseases. For example, at the wrong leaving a consequence of accumulation under a prepuce the boy of the remains of urine and a smegma can have an acute balanoposthitis.
Besides, doctors allocate also other diseases because of which development parents are very often forced to address the children's urologist. The hydrocele at the boy quite often comes to light at once after the birth. However doctors define also natural state — an edema neonatorum which is provoked by strong squeezing of testicles at the time of delivery. For a month this phenomenon passes. If in a month periodic increase in a scrotum is observed, then surgical intervention which is carried out aged from 10 till 12 months in that case is already necessary.
The cryptorchism is diagnosed at not descent of testis from an abdominal cavity in a scrotum. Initially to the child ultrasonic research or MRT is conducted to define, there is a small egg where exactly. Treatment is carried out by a surgical method, or to the child reception of hormones is appointed.
Varikotsele is pathology at which the varicosity of a small egg and seed cord is observed. Such disease is characteristic already of teenagers. At boys in 12-14 years hormonal activity considerably increases, as leads to development to a varikotsela. Treatment in modern clinics is carried out using a laparoscopy.
Hypospadias and epispadiya — anomalies of anatomy of a penis of inborn character when there is a shift of an outside opening of an urethra I on the lower surface of a penis (the hypospadias) or on upper (definition an epispadiya is defined). At such pathology there is a strong chordee, also the person can suffer from an urine incontience. Plastic surgery can be a solution, however carry out it urologists advise as soon as possible — approximately at one-year-old age.
Except the described often found diseases children's urologists should face also more serious pathologies. These are, first of all, the anomalies having obstructive character (in this case outflow of urine is broken owing to existence of an additional vessel) and reflyuksiruyushchy character (throwing in a renal pelvis of contents of a bladder takes place). Ekstrofiya of a bladder — very serious anomaly at which there is no front wall of a bladder. Treatment is also carried out by a surgical way, but such interventions surely take place in several stages.
In modern medicine urological diseases diagnose for children with use of the latest techniques. For example, in recent years in urology the separate section — endoscopic urology was defined. By means of ultramodern devices and tools both diagnostic, and medical endoscopic operations are carried out.
The address to specialists is shown if parents suspect that diseases of urinogenital system at children develop. It can be suspected if at the kid disturbances in the course of an urination take place, enuresis, regular back pains or in a stomach, frequent rises in body temperature which are difficult for explaining are shown. It is also important to consider discolorations of urine of the child or existence of certain changes in the analysis. In the presence of one or more problems from the induced list it is necessary to conduct surely the child on an appointment. It is desirable that the child was consulted by the children's urologist. The doctor the urologist carries out diagnosis, appoints treatment and recommends prevention measures at diseases of an urinary system at children. As a rule, consultation of the children's urologist assumes additional researches. Sometimes it is required that the kid was in addition examined by the surgeon or other specialists.
In modern medicine diagnosis assumes not only confirmation of existence of diseases, but also their prevention, and also early determination of anomalies of development of urinary ways of inborn character.
Prevention of urological diseases at children
Children's urologists strongly recommend to observe a number of preventive measures which considerably will reduce risk of development of urological diseases. First of all, parents have to pay special attention to features of anatomy of external genitals of the child as the pediatrician examines them only at preventive checks, and parents can do it regularly. If the doctor recommends to conduct ultrasonic research, it needs to be made surely. At the first symptoms or signs which guard parents it is necessary to ask for the help in department of children's urology at once.