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Dysbacteriosis at children
Dysbacteriosis of intestines is a state at which the child has a ratio distortion of representatives of intestinal microflora which has to be observed in a normality. If to be guided by criteria of World Health Organization, then dysbacteriosis is not carried to diseases. So, many scientists are sure that dysbacteriosis is an effect of existence in a human body of other pathologies. However dysbacteriosis at children yavltsya by a serious problem and poses threat for health.
The role of intestinal microflora of the person in general is very important for normal functioning of an organism. The microflora is responsible for normal gas exchange in intestines, synthesizes vitamins, activates renewal of cells of a mucous membrane of intestines, clears an organism of harmful toxins, etc.
The kid is born, having sterile intestines, and microorganisms occupy him at once after the birth. During the first hours and days of life an organism and microflora adapt owing to what there is forming of an ecosystem of an organism which becomes unsuitable for colonization by its new microorganisms. Children who are raised artificially and breast milk, in each case have features of microflora. If the child stays on full feeding by breast milk, then it in intestines has more bifidobacteria which actively breed under the influence of the substance which is present at breast milk.
Dysbacteriosis stages at children
Dysbacteriosis at children is shown by change of number and structure of microorganisms in intestines at which the quantity of beneficial bacteria sharply decreases, at the same time the number of harmful microorganisms increases.
Symptoms of dysbacteriosis are shown more or less depending on what stage of frustration takes place at the child. The first stage of dysbacteriosis at babies can be defined only after carrying out the analysis the child's calla. At the same time the expressed symptoms of dysbacteriosis at the child at this stage are not shown. But results of microbiological research a calla demonstrate that the quantity of bifidobacteria is reduced. Also the reduced number of lactobacilli and a normal colibacillus can be observed.
At the second stage symptoms of dysbacteriosis are shown by constant locks. It occurs in connection with increase in intestines of the child of number of conditional causative organisms which Candide, a protea, etc. treats. At the same time decrease in beneficial bacteria continues.
As a rule, if the child is healthy, then aged from 0 till 6 months his frequency of a chair equals to the number of feedings and makes up to seven times a day. If the child is tormented by locks, then the frequency of his chair, as a rule, decreases, however and it occurs not always.
Symptoms of dysbacteriosis at the baby often is more dense consistence of a chair, decrease in quantity a calla, difficult process of bowel emptying. In this case the child can cry, make an effort, show strong concern. At it also small abdominal distention can periodically be shown. However these signs can testify also to other illnesses therefore the child without fail needs to be shown to the doctor. At the second stage of dysbacteriosis also can times be shown an unstable chair. The periodic liquid chair having an unpleasant smell and some impurity of greens is characteristic of this phenomenon. At the third stage of dysbacteriosis at children which it is accepted to call a decompensation both the quantity, and a variety of species of disease-producing bacteria increases in intestines of the kid. Especially expressed dysbacteriosis symptoms are characteristic of this stage. The sick child turns pale, he constantly sluggish, has a small appetite and, respectively, loses flesh. Disbkterioz at the babies who did not reach one-year-old age can be shown by atopic dermatitis (diathesis). At the third stage of an illness a chair of the kid also unhealthy: with an unpleasant smell, a liquid consistence, can contain in it a food particle which was not digested. The similar phenomena – result of insufficiency of enzymes which is shown at this stage. If at the child the described symptoms of dysbacteriosis are shown, then treatment in the conditions of a hospital can be necessary for it, such state threatens with short-reception of nutrients necessary to the baby.
Display of acute intestinal infection which demands hospitalization and an immediate intensive care becomes the fourth stage of dysbacteriosis.
The dysbacteriosis reasons at children
Dysbacteriosis at children arises in connection with several different reasons. Use of antibiotics, too late applying of the newborn to a maternal breast, an early excommunication from a breast and transfer into artificial mixes can provoke its development. Besides, dysbacteriosis can develop as a result of acute and chronic diseases of a digestive tract, influence of ecological factors (pesticides, industrial poisons, radiation, heavy metals), treatment by radiation therapy and immunodepressants. Negatively also frequent stresses, regular display of cold, passive smoking, an unhealthy food allowance influence a condition of the child in this case.
Dysbacteriosis symptoms at children
Dysbacteriosis at babies is shown by frequent vomiting, periodic vomiting, existence of an unpleasant smell from a mouth, a sleep disorder. Besides, dysbacteriosis symptoms often is reduction in the rate of increase of weight, constant concern of the chest baby. Character of a chair at dysbacteriosis happens different, but always unhealthy: it can be liquid or kashitseobrazny, foamy, sometimes at it there are white lumps, greenish impurity. Smell of fecal masses putrefactive or sourish.
The child suffers from pain which has character of attacks. It, as a rule, appears in several hours after food, at the same time the stomach is blown up, in it rumbling is heard, emergence of desires on defecation is possible.
If at the child intestinal absorption is broken, then in this case symptoms of dysbacteriosis are shown by diarrhea with putrefactive fermentation, a meteorism. The body weight of the kid decreases, polyhypovitaminosis symptoms are shown. As a result at the child development of a toksiko-dystrophic state is possible. Gradually in pathological process the pancreas and gepatobiliarny system is involved. As a result in an organism shortage of enzymes and bile acids takes place. Exchange processes are broken, in an organism there is an accumulation of macromolecules not until the end of the digested food, provoking development of an allergodermatoz.
Dysbacteriosis at children of more advanced age provokes persistent locks, developing of intestinal gripes, an unstable chair, dyskinesia of guts. The child sometimes complains of a constant eructation, feeling of a strong raspiraniye in a stomach. Appetite gradually decreases. If intestinal dysbacteriosis proceeds the long period, the child suffers from the general intoxication of an organism and an asthenoneurotic syndrome. However the option of disease when clinical symptoms at disturbances of intestinal microflora do not come to light is possible.
Most heavier at children widespread dysbacteriosis at which pathogenic microorganisms from intestines get to other bodies proceeds. It can provoke development of inflammatory processes in different body organs. But even if the course of dysbacteriosis passes without visible signs, then nevertheless at the child lower appetite and, respectively, smaller body weight, than at his peers is observed. At the same time the child often has other illnesses. In this case it is about the latent course of dysbacteriosis.
Diagnosis of dysbacteriosis at children
To define existence at the child of dysbacteriosis, microbiological research a calla (so-called bacterial crops) is applied. This analysis on dysbacteriosis is carried out for about one week, for its full performance it is required that colonies of microorganisms from a calla grew in a special medium. When colonies grow, the specialist will be able to define a ratio of their quantity and quality. It is important that collected by kcal it was delivered for the analysis to dysbacteriosis no later than three hours later after collecting. Such method allows to define only the maintenance of microorganisms in final department of a large intestine though the food is digested mainly in a small intestine. Therefore it is necessary to consider that microorganisms which are in Calais and microorganisms from intestines are not identical.
Besides results which the analysis on dysbacteriosis allows to receive will not be stable. In each laboratory can estimate only about ten of species of bacteria, and in intestines there can be about one hundred their types.
Treatment of dysbacteriosis at children
First of all, treatment of dysbacteriosis at children assumes creation of necessary vital conditions for the child. It is proved that dysbacteriosis children who stay in the conditions of a constant stress and overfatigue very often have, seldom happen on fresh rest.
It is not less important to correct eating habits of the child. Whether the normal microflora in intestines will develop directly depends on quality of its food. If it is about the baby, then thanks to feeding breast milk which contains lactose, in intestines forms enough bifidobacteria. They process lactose, and the lactic acid lowering intestines pH as a result is formed. Therefore, children who are on natural feeding have dysbacteriosis less often. At the same time at children who eat artificial mixes reproduction of bifidobacteria or does not happen in general, or they are in intestines only in small amounts. Therefore for feeding of the child at impossibility of breastfeeding it is necessary to choose special milk mixes which part vitamins, a probiotics, minerals, bioadditives, enzymes are. It is important that the choice of mix for feeding of the kid was approved by the pediatrician. The last is especially important if the child is ill or at the use of a certain mix problems with health are shown.
If it is about the child of more advanced age, then it is necessary to take care of a food allowance which will include all vitamins necessary for growth and harmonious development of the kid.
Food at dysbacteriosis should not include those products which provoke development of pathogenic microflora in intestines. It products from the premiums of flour, sweet, fats of animal origin, canned food, ice cream.
Correction of food allows to achieve good results in the course of correction of initial stages of dysbacteriosis.
To overcome more serious forms of dysbacteriosis, replacement therapy is applied. In this case it is about treatment of dysbacteriosis by means of introduction to an organism of the sick child of the component lacking it.
At dysbacteriosis those drugs which contain the live bacteria recovering the normal level of microflora – a so-called probiotics are used. Such drugs are not medicine, and rather functional food. Today there are many different food stuffs which contain cultures bifido-and lactobacilli. Also there are drugs of bacteria (Lineks, Subtil, Bifidoform, Laktobakterin, etc.) which promote recovery of normal intestinal microflora. These drugs contain the live bacteria steady against influence of antibiotics. Therefore at the dysbacteriosis provoked by antibiotics, such treatment is reasonable.
Treatment duration by such drugs is established by the attending physician. As a rule, administration of drugs can last as several weeks, and several months. If treatment of dysbacteriosis is begun in time and carried out correctly, then as a result it is possible to prevent emergence of a number of illnesses of a digestive tract and diseases which arise because of food disturbances. It is the most important to carry out the correct therapy of dysbacteriosis at children of early age, this state can affect negatively development of the child generally.
It is important that at treatment of dysbacteriosis the doctor practiced an individual approach, paying attention to all features of a children's organism.
There are some methods of treatment of dysbacteriosis folk remedies which sometimes recommend to use in parallel with traditional treatment. So, at dysbacteriosis at children of advanced age it is recommended to drink on a third of a glass three times a day infusion of herbs of a yarrow, sage, St. John's Wort, a camomile. It is also possible to use infusion of roots of a dandelion and burdock. Children are recommended to use broth of the crushed fennel seeds, and also fennel. Reproduction of beneficial bacteria stimulates a girasol – it can be given to children in the small portions.
Prevention of dysbacteriosis at children
Even during pregnancy the woman has to take care of the future health of intestines of the kid and accept as little as possible drugs, whenever possible, without allowing treatment by antibiotics. Also healthy nutrition of the pregnant woman is important: it is strongly recommended to use fruit, berries, juice. It is better to exclude food which difficult is digested from a diet.
Not to allow emergence of a disbkterioz at children, early applying of the child to a maternal breast practices. It is important to make it for half an hour after the delivery. Not less important measure of prevention of dysbacteriosis is also long feeding by breast milk (on an extent till one and a half years).
Further parents need to accustom the child to healthy life. It is important to kid to walk much in the fresh air, to do exercises, hydrotherapeutic procedures. The gradual hardening will help to improve protective forces of an organism that is the main measure of prevention of developing of dysbacteriosis.
Not to allow problems with intestines, it is necessary to pay special attention to the correct approach to food of the kid. Every day at its menu there have to be vegetables, fruit, cereals, porridges. Vegetable oils are also a useful product. If it is about food at dysbacteriosis, then in this case ragouts from vegetables, kissels from berries, dogrose broth will be useful.
Food at dysbacteriosis shall include fermented milk products which considerably stimulate work of intestines. Cottage cheese, yogurts, kefir should be included in a diet of the kid which already was one year old. Till this time it is not necessary to hurry with introduction of similar products. The most suitable food at dysbacteriosis for the baby is a maternal milk, at impossibility of breastfeeding milk is replaced by artificial mix.