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Dysphagy (Swallowing disturbance)
August 19, 2013
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The dysphagy is a state at which the person feels that the food at pass through a gullet gets stuck. At the same time morbidity is sometimes noted. At a dysphagy it is necessary to address first of all the otolaryngologist, consultation of other specialists — the gastroenterologist, the neurologist, the psychotherapist can be also necessary.
How the dysphagy is shown?
Disturbance of swallowing can be noted at the person if it developed diseases of a gullet, a throat, and also bodies located close. Swallowing dysfunction is involved sometimes by problems in work of a nervous system, and also reason of psychological character. If disturbance of the act of swallowing and passing of food on a gullet is aggravated, then at the patient deficit of nutrients in an organism, and in hard cases — and exhaustion can gradually develop. In such cases food at disturbance of swallowing needs to be adjusted.
Process of swallowing assumes serial reduction and relaxation of muscles which as a result conducts to the fact that the food through a throat, and further through a gullet gets into a stomach. At a dysphagy these processes are broken.
Pain when swallowing food often is followed also by other features. Because the pharyngalgia when swallowing is shown, the person can cough owing to what the food appears in a nasopharynx. The food can sometimes come back and pour out through a nose. Severe pain when swallowing is often accompanied by heartburn, feeling of tension, continuous salivation. While the food passes through a gullet, can seem to the person that arises when swallowing pain in an Adam's apple. Sometimes at the same time there is a feeling of suffocation, and at some kinds of a dysphagy is felt when swallowing a stethalgia. In a breast the discomfort appears: at the same time it seems to the person that the lump of food stopped in a gullet and further cannot promote. Later gullet pain when swallowing food is felt. If throat pain when swallowing is felt on an extent more than one week, it is necessary to see a doctor not to miss the beginning of a serious disease.
It should be noted that neck pain when swallowing can be noted also at viral infections — flu or cold. In that case the dysphagy is followed also by other symptoms. It is an acute pain in a throat, the increased body temperature, muscle pain, weakness, etc.
Why the dysphagy develops?
Causes of infringement of swallowing assume failure in this process at different stages. A serious illness can often be the cause of such phenomenon. So, disturbance of swallowing at a stroke is observed, disturbance of swallowing at osteochondrosis, etc. At some diseases a dysphagy it is necessary to treat without delays as it can lead to development of serious complications. For example, disturbance of swallowing after a stroke can provoke the beginning of aspiration pneumonia.
Specialists distinguish a dysphagy oropharyngeal and esophageal. In turn, the upper, lower and average oropharyngeal dysphagy is defined.
The upper dysphagy is shown at diseases of a thyroid gland, lymph nodes. Also illnesses of a backbone and muscles, disturbances of nervous control, an injury can be the cause of such phenomenon. Disturbances of swallowing display also burns of a mouth and throat, both chemical, and thermal. The dysphagy also arises with defects of anatomy of an oral cavity, for example, at people with a wolf mouth.
The average dysphagy develops at diseases of bodies of a postmediastinum. These are cardiovascular diseases, diseases of absorbent vessels, connecting fabric, nerves.
The lower dysphagy — a consequence of tumors and cysts of a diaphragm. Also this phenomenon sometimes arises at increase in a spleen, liver.
The second kind of a dysphagy — an esophageal dysphagy — too is subdivided into three types. It is a high, average and lower dysphagy.
Emergence of a high esophageal dysphagy is often connected with spasms of the mouth of a gullet, protrusion of a wall of a gullet. Also this type of a dysphagy develops at chronic and acute inflammatory processes in throats and in a drink, at hit of foreign bodys.
The average esophageal dysphagy is an effect of neuromuscular frustration, tumors, ulcers, etc.
Emergence of the lower esophageal dysphagy is connected with disturbances in work of the lower esophageal sphincter. Also the dysphagy of this type is shown at development of hernia of an esophageal opening of a diaphragm, at tumors, diverticulums.
Thus, the gullet dysphagy often develops owing to different diseases. The syndrome of a dysphagy arises because of failure of function of muscles and nerves. For this reason develops dysphagies at a stroke, and the classification of a dysphagy above given testifies to what diseases most often provoke dysphagy symptoms.
Except the specified diseases the functional dysphagy develops at multiple sclerosis, a scleroderma, an achalasia, Parkinson's illness. The dysphagy because of nerves, as a rule, is not the constant phenomenon. Its emergence provokes a certain type of food (heating, spicy, cold food). It is characteristic of people who are inclined to constant stresses and improper feeding (mainly with no drink). However sometimes the nervous dysphagy which proceeds very long leads to serious exhaustion of an organism.
The paradoxical dysphagy is a disturbance of swallowing of which easier passing through a gullet of firm food in comparison with liquid is characteristic. Also it is easier for person to swallow of big pieces, than the chewed food.
Pain when swallowing sometimes arises at people who smoke much, owing to influence of chemical irritants, because of displays of an allergy, owing to chronic infectious diseases of nasal bosoms.
How to get rid of a dysphagy?
To eliminate this state, the doctor initially conducts comprehensive investigation. Both detailed poll, and tool researches practices. The X-ray analysis of a gullet, neck and breast, laringospkopichesky research can be carried out. If there is a suspicion on development of a tumor, the biopsy is carried out. If necessary also other researches practice.
Treatment of a dysphagy of a gullet depends first of all on the reason of its development. That is complex treatment of that disease which symptom it is is carried out. If disturbances of swallowing occurred owing to hit in a gullet or in a throat of a foreign body, then treatment of a dysphagy consists in its extraction. In the presence of a tumor consultation of the oncologist is without fail held. Considering the fact that the tumor, one of symptoms of which is a dysphagy, can have signs malignant, folk remedies without visit to the doctor it is better not to practice treatment of a dysphagy. Sometimes the tumor is removed surgically. If necessary the radiation therapy or other methods directed to suspension of progressing of an oncological disease practices.
If the etiology is frustration of a nervous system, consultation of the psychotherapist is held. It is very important to keep to accurately appointed diet: is only in accurately certain time, in a pose about which the doctor will tell, to eat food in the form of mashed potatoes.
At dysfunction of muscles the special exercises directed to activation of their activity practice. However sometimes it is necessary to carry out an esophagectasia.
If a dysphagy — the effect of a gastroesophageal reflex or an esophagitis, to the patient are appointed those medicines which promote reduction of acidity of a stomach. Sometimes disturbances of swallowing disappear after the person accepts antiacid drugs. In the most hard cases to the patient meal through a probe is appointed or nutrients are entered intravenously.
People who already noted in due time manifestations of a dysphagy are recommended to conform to some rules to avoid its repeated development. Meal has to be quiet, slow. It is not necessary to speak at the same time as air gets into a gullet that complicates advance of food. Food with no drink should be excluded completely. It is important to watch and behind temperature of food and drink — optimum to use warm, but not hot dishes and drinks. After food it is not necessary to lay down at once as in horizontal position the food can back get into a gullet that promotes an exacerbation of the diseases causing a dysphagy. For about two hours after food you should not bend forward. You should not wear too hard belts and corsets also. One more important point — timely treatment of all diseases which cause a dysphagy.