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December 4, 2013
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The dysphonia is a state at which at the person quality of a voice is broken.
How the dysphonia is shown?
The dysphonia at children and adults is shown by changes of a voice. It becomes osiply, nasal, hoarse. At the same time the voice is present, however at the changed look. If it is completely lost, then the speech already goes about an aphonia.
At the person who has a dysphonia the voice timbre, its tonality can change. The dysphonia at children often is followed by emergence of a stridor — a loud rough sound which appears when passing air through a dried throat during an exhalation and a sigh.
Several forms of a dysphonia are defined with features of this symptom.
The organic dysphonia is shown at the people having inflammatory diseases of a throat. A functional dysphonia — a state which arises in the absence of inflammatory processes in a throat.
In turn, the functional form of a dysphonia is subdivided into several different types. At a gipotonusny dysphonia the tone of muscles of voice folds decreases owing to what they are closed not completely. As a result, at the patient hoarseness of a voice, fast fatigue is noted. The Gipertonusny dysphonia is diagnosed if the muscle tone of voice folds raises. In this case except hoarseness throat, throat, neck pain is noted. Also the hypo-gipertonusnaya dysphonia at which the tone of muscles of voice folds goes down is allocated and at the same time the tone of vestibular folds of a throat raises. As a result, at the patient the expressed dryness and a sdavlennost of a voice is noted.
At children and teenagers the mutational dysphonia is noted. As a rule, this symptom is observed at boys during active puberty and characterized by an unstable tonality of a voice. At the teenager sharp transitions from a high-pitch tone to low are observed.
The spastic dysphonia is an effect of too hard work of muscles of a throat and respiratory muscles. At the same time at the person the voice becomes unnaturally intense or almost silent. These manifestations can alternate.
As a rule, the organic dysphonia is short-term whereas the functional dysphonia has a long current.
Why the dysphonia is shown?
Children can have inborn dysphonia reasons: it is defect of a throat at which maldevelopment of cartilages of a throat is noted. As a result, morphological features conduct to the fact that at the child the noisy breath is constantly shown. Also the anomalies of a throat connected with forming of vascular tumors — angiomas can be inborn. Sometimes the dysphonia reasons at children are connected also with disturbances of development of voice folds. If it is about the inborn dysphonia connected with dysfunction of voice folds, then symptoms of a dysphonia can be similar to displays of bronchial asthma: these are periodic rattles and attacks of short wind.
The reasons of a dysphonia of organic type are acute or chronic diseases of different departments of a throat and the lower respiratory tracts. It can be inflammatory processes, allergic reactions, neurologic or oncological diseases owing to which there is a narrowing of a gleam of respiratory tracts or other changes which talk to changes owing to disturbance of breath and a voice.
The functional dysphonia can develop at the person against diseases of internals (lungs, heart, vessels), endocrine system (a thyroid gland, adrenal glands, gonads). This type of a dysphonia can be shown against obstruction of upper respiratory tracts owing to hit of foreign bodys, reception of anabolic steroids there. Rather often treatment of a dysphonia is required to those who uses a voice professionally, that is is engaged in a vocal, constantly loudly speaks owing to a profession. The dysphonia can be shown owing to anemia, avitaminosis, diseases of cervical department of a backbone, disorders of neurologic and mental character.
Changes of the speech of this type can appear also after operative measures at which bodies of the voice device of a throat can be damaged. Sometimes the dysphonia arises under the influence of a severe stress, reception of some medicines, owing to the postponed infectious diseases.
Frustration of a voice happens owing to continuous stay in the room to the increased dampness, a large amount of dust, too cold or too hot microclimate. Changes of the speech can be connected also with production factors — inhalation of harmful substances, dust, etc.
One more factor which can negatively affect a condition of the voice device — the frequent use of alcoholic drinks. Under the influence of alcohol there is a strengthened rush of blood to a throat and a throat that leads to manifestation of dryness of a mucous membrane. Quality of a voice and at smokers worsens. The tobacco smoke provokes a chronic inflammation of a throat, bronchial tubes, tracheas. Besides the tobacco smoke contains a large amount of harmful substances which promote development of serious diseases, up to oncological processes. It is not necessary to abuse hot dishes which annoyingly influence a mucous membrane. The voice can be imputed also owing to the use of very cold drinks. It is especially harmful to alternate the use of too cold and hot drinks or dishes.
How to cure a dysphonia?
Before practicing treatment of a dysphonia, the doctor needs to establish the correct diagnosis and to define what factor became defining at development of this symptom. The specialist shall learn, the alalia what disorders of voice function at the same time are observed whether the patient has chronic diseases against which the dysphonia could develop what is the time proceeds. Full physical examination (a laringoskopiya, acoustic research of features of a voice, a X-ray, throat KT), laboratory analyses is surely conducted.
Treatment of a dysphonia, first of all, assumes full therapy of those diseases which provoked manifestation of this symptom. Sometimes recovery of a voice requires carrying out full correction of neurologic and mental defects. The person shall observe the correct voice mode. If necessary treatment by medicines, physiotherapeutic procedures is carried out. If there are indications, the doctor can make the decision on carrying out an operative measure.
If treatment is carried out correctly and consistently, then gradually it is possible to get rid of frustration of a voice completely. Pi lack of full therapy, transition of diseases to a chronic form, a voice can remain changed, or the condition of the person is aggravated even more.
Prevention of a dysphonia consists, first of all, in timely treatment of diseases of a throat and throat, observance of the correct voice mode, the preventive address to the specialist at the first manifestations of problems with voice. It is important not to allow frequent catarrhal diseases, to strengthen immunity.