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The dysplasia is a general name for a state at which the person has the wrong development of parts of a body, fabrics, bodies. At a dysplasia at the person some bodies or fabrics incorrectly form during pre-natal development, and also after the birth. For a dysplasia change in a form, the size, structure of the cells, bodies, fabrics is characteristic. As a rule, the dysplasia happens inborn, however sometimes the disease arises also after the birth, and even at adult age. This term can be applied to different diseases which basis is an anomaly of development of a cell, fabric or body.
Dysplasia of a neck of uterus
The dysplasia of a neck of uterus is a precancerous state: women, with this diagnosis repeatedly have a probability of display of cancer of neck of uterus. However, the dysplasia of a neck of uterus does not demonstrate absolute probability of such outcome yet. In development of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus the woman has a hyperplasia (that is a thickening), proliferation (that is growth), and also the broken differentiation, maturing and the subsequent aging and rejection of cells of an epithelium is observed. It is dependent on that, similar pathological disturbances are how expressed, the speech can go about three different degrees of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus: easy, moderate and heavy. To define the current degree of a disease, pathology penetration depth undertakes in attention.
Today there are researches testimonial of the fact that pathological processes of a neck of uterus take place at every fourth woman.
The dysplasia of a neck of uterus develops owing to manifestation of some reasons. It can be exogenous factors, (that is received from external environment): herpes, a number of diseases which are transmitted sexually, infection with viruses of papilloma of the person. Viruses of papilloma of the person play the leading role in a question of provoking of development of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus.
As internal causes (that is proceeding from internal environment of an organism) define a hormonal imbalance, decrease in immunity. Besides, development of a dysplasia is provoked by also mixed factors.
To carry out full establishment of the diagnosis, it is necessary to apply a number of researches, reasonable in each individual case. In the course of diagnosis the kolposkopiya is applied. This research assumes carrying out survey of a neck of uterus of the patient on a gynecologic chair by means of the special device. In the course of such survey the image is enlarged at 10-30 times. During a kolposkopiya the woman does not feel pain.
The expanded kolposkopiya in the course of which the doctor studies an epithelium is applied to obtaining more exact data at diagnosis, and also diagnostic tests are applied. Monitoring procedure by a kolposkopiya allows to take precisely analyses, to define the centers of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus. The patient does not feel any discomfort and at capture of smears for cytology. For this purpose by means of special brushes epithelium cells from the cervical channel and from a surface of a neck of uterus are taken. Also cells of an epithelium take from the found dysplasia centers.
If the dysplasia of a neck of uterus was found in the patient, and also the pathological picture of cytology takes place, the specialist appoints carrying out a biopsy of a neck of uterus. As a rule, this procedure is carried out with use of local anesthesia. In the course of a biopsy under control of a kolposkopiya the part of the changed fabric from the center a disease is withdrawn. After that histologic research of such sample is conducted. The similar diagnostic method allows to define precisely necessary approach to treatment of a disease.
If the dysplasia of a neck of uterus was revealed in the cervical channel, then the scraping of the cervical channel and the analysis of fabric which was removed is sometimes carried out.
Treatment of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus
By the method of treatment of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus having high effect destruction of the center of a dysplasia, laser coagulation, radio wave coagulation, cauterization is considered liquid nitrogen. If necessary use of one of the specified techniques is combined with antiviral treatment or therapy of diseases which are transferred sexually.
It is important that treatment of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus to women who did not give birth was carried out by the most sparing methods. After the end of process of cauterization on a neck of uterus there can be a hem which can affect further the course of childbirth. The cicatricial neck reveals much worse therefore often in a similar situation resort to Cesarean section.
Today essentially new techniques are actively applied to treatment of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus. Argonoplazmenny ablation of a neck of uterus is considered a progressive method. This method means effect of plasma which is created by the ionized argon. At the same time the tool does not touch fabrics, and penetration depth is precisely controlled. The similar technique is applied to treatment of the women who both were giving birth, and not giving birth.
As methods of prevention of a dysplasia of a neck of uterus and recurrence of a disease it is important to provide good nutrition into which products with the high content of selenium, vitamins A, vitamins of group B, other microelements and vitamins enter. The woman is recommended to refuse completely smoking, without fail to use barrier contraception during accidental sexual contacts, and also at least, once a year to visit the gynecologist.
Dysplasia of hip joints
This disease is diagnosed rather often now. The wrong arrangement of elements of a hip joint is characteristic of it. All fabrics of a hip joint are underdeveloped, and as a result of such pathology the acetabular hollow, a head of a femur and ligaments surrounding it and muscles are located incorrectly. At children of early age dysplasias of a hip joint call inborn predislocation, an incomplete dislocation, dislocation, an unripe hip joint.
The reason of similar pathology the arrest of development of a hip joint in the pre-natal period as a result of bad heredity, infections at mother, her advanced age, toxicosis, buttock presentation and some other the moments is considered.
In this case it is extraordinary important to diagnose this problem as soon as possible, at the newborn child the joint continues to form. Therefore, use of the correct approach to treatment after timely diagnosis allows to recover proper correlations in a hip joint to three-months age of the child. At the same time in the absence of treatment the condition of the sick child worsens every month.
Congenital dislocation of a hip is diagnosed in a maternity home. Then the orthopedist repeatedly examines the kid in the first weeks of life and at three-months age. Most often the dysplasia of a hip joint is found in view of existence of some characteristic symptoms.
At the sick child from defeat restriction of passive assignment of a hip in different degree depending on features of pathology takes place. Over time restriction of assignment becomes more expressed.
Also at the child the so-called symptom of "click" is observed: in time assignment of legs dislocation is set and at the same time the hand feels click. If to bring legs of the baby to the average line, then hip head dislocation occurs again, and click is again heard. The similar symptom generally disappears in a week after the birth of the kid, however sometimes at a hypomyotonia it remains longer.
At the child with a dysplasia skin folds on hips are asymmetric. Such folds is present at the party where the dysplasia develops, more. They deeper are also located above.
When the kid sleeps, his leg is established in the provision of outside rotation, that is turn of foot takes place. The lower extremity at a dysplasia can be shortened. Such symptoms can be shown also in a complex, and separately. It is important to address the orthopedist at the slightest suspicions.
Early diagnosis of a disease can be carried out by means of use of ultrasonic research. Such method does not do harm to the child and allows to trace his state in dynamics.
During diagnosis of a dysplasia of a hip joint at newborns the radiological method of research is actively applied. The X-ray is carried out to children who already were three months old. The x-ray film shows dislocation degree that allows to appoint the correct therapy.
At a dysplasia of a hip joint complex treatment which assumes use of several methods of therapy is appointed. It, first of all, the treatment by situation assuming broad swaddling and imposing to the kid of tires. Carrying out medical massage which includes from ten to fifteen sessions practices, at the same time the course needs to be repeated approximately in a month. Remedial gymnastics which is carried out several times a day gives also good effect, carrying out all exercises on ten times. The method of treatment of an illness is chosen depending on weight of pathology and age of the sick child. Ideally treatment of dysplasias of hip joints needs to be begun in a maternity home.
To cure inborn predislocation, use of the special taking-away Vilensky's tires practices. The child has to stay in the tire constantly for four months. There are many other tires which are also often used in the course of treatment for designated purpose of the doctor.
If treatment of the child was begun early, then it can be put on legs at the age of 8-11 months. But nevertheless the conservative technique of treatment not always yields desirable result. Sometimes carrying out an operative measure is shown to the child. Similar operation is performed when to the child year is executed, and it is applied at unreducible dislocations, at complications of the dislocations set earlier.
When the child grows up, he is recommended to ride a bicycle, widely placing legs, to do gymnastics in warm water, to float, carry out regularly exercises of remedial gymnastics.
Dysplasia of connecting fabric
The dysplasia of connecting fabric develops at children, both in the pre-natal period, and after the birth. At the same time development of connecting fabric is broken. This fabric is made by cells, fibers and intercellular substance. It is eurysynusic in a human body and is in skin, bones, cartilages, walls of vessels and in blood. An important role in a structure of this fabric is played by fibers. It is collagen which is responsible for support of a form, and elastin which is responsible for ability to relaxation and reduction.
The dysplasia of connecting fabric is genetically predetermined illness, a basis of a course of a disease is the mutation of genes which are responsible for synthesis of fibers. Similar mutations occur in different genes, and the wrong forming of chains of collagen and elastin as a result takes place. Those structures which were formed under their influence cannot sustain strong mechanical loadings.
Diseases of connecting fabric of hereditary character can be subdivided on differentiated and undifferentiated.
As a rule, the people having a dysplasia of connecting fabric, high, thin and round-shouldered, at them act shovels and clavicles. However, patients can have the small growth and very brittle addition of a body.
The dysplasia of connecting fabric is shown by very different symptoms, at the same time patients, as a rule, have many different complaints. Respectively, it is not always simple to establish the diagnosis.
However in most cases people address specialists with complaints of cardial character. They also have a vegetative symptomatology: arterial hypotension, feeling of the general weakness can be shown, a headache, etc. Besides, at patients with a dysplasia of connecting fabric the various dispepsichesky phenomena, locks, a meteorism, abdominal pains of uncertain character often take place.
Also at patients with this illness diseases of respiratory system can develop, namely – often repeating bronchitis, pneumonia which are caused by inborn weakness of a wall of alveoluses and a bronchial tube. Besides, in the anamnesis of such patients hernias, flat-footedness, weakness, a hypomyotonia, a kyphoscoliosis, a small appetite, as a rule, appear. Doctors allocate the following signs testimonial of the fact that at the person the dysplasia of connecting fabric developed: too low body weight, existence of deformation of a thorax, presence of different pathologies of a backbone (it can be scoliosis, a hyper kyphosis, a hyperlordosis). Besides, the arachnodactyly (too long extremities, hands, feet that in general does a body asymmetric), hyper mobility of joints, the deformed extremities, skin through which the vascular grid, auricles very soft looks through testifies to this illness.
Correctly to make the diagnosis, very careful survey of the patient and additional researches is necessary. For inspection of the patient to it conduct ultrasonic research, and also the analysis on dysbacteriosis. In the course of inspection the patient needs to check also a condition of sight, existence of LOR-pathologies.
With a dysplasia of connecting fabric it is important to people to treat very seriously a question of planning of a family, at parents with this pathology children are born with the same disease. Parents have to realize that the most difficult task is fight against already created dysplasia therefore it is necessary to be engaged in treatment of a dysplasia at the kid at once after establishment of the diagnosis. At early therapy it is possible to prevent its progressing.
At treatment of a dysplasia of connecting fabric the integrated approach at which both non-drug, and medicamentous methods of therapy are used is applied.
For therapy medicamentous means use drugs which stimulate education in a collagen organism. In this case treatment by ascorbic acid, drugs of the mukopolisakharidny nature, reception of vitamins of group B and microelements (zinc, copper, magnesium) is applied.
As non-drug therapy correction of a day regimen, psychological support, massage, physical therapy, acupuncture, exercises of physiotherapy exercises is applied. People who have a dysplasia of connecting fabric cannot play the sports assuming strong loadings. Therefore in this case physiotherapy exercises are shown. It is also important to correct food of the patient that he received enough proteins, amino acids and microelements.
It is important to consider that the positive effect from treatment is possible only in case of early establishment of the diagnosis and an integrated approach to therapy.