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January 27, 2012
Dystonia is a disturbance in work of a certain part of the nervous system which is responsible for autonomous processes of a human body. Distinguish different types of dystonia of which certain symptoms are characteristic.
Muscular dystonia is an illness of extrapyramidal system which has chronic character. This state of which reduction of muscles of constant or spasmodic character is characteristic. This reduction happens both in an agonist muscle, and in the muscle counteracting it. Manifestation of such spasms cannot be predicted. They can be chronic and cause to the patient notable inconvenience that is fraught with loss of normal working capacity.
It is accepted to distinguish primary muscular dystonia which is a hereditary illness of a nervous system, and also a secondary form of an illness which arises as the neurologic syndrome accompanying other diseases of a nervous system. Often secondary dystonia of muscles is shown at children of the first year of life against a hemolitic illness of newborns, gepatotserebralny dystrophy and other pathologies.
The main displays of muscular dystonia are the slow movements of extremities and muscles of involuntary character. At the same time the muscle tone and pathological poses of a trunk and extremities changes.
Hypoxemic and ischemic encephalopathy is the reason of display of muscular dystonia at children. This injury of a brain of ischemic character which happened in the course of incubation of the child or directly at the time of delivery. In the course of pregnancy there are many situations (placental detachment, a gestosis, intoxications harmful substances, etc.) owing to which at a fruit the chronic hypoxia develops. The acute hypoxia arises owing to disturbances in the course of patrimonial activity. These phenomena lead to manifestation at the kid of muscular dystonia.
Muscular dystonia has different degrees of manifestation, at the same time the tone of muscles can be broken in different directions. The hyper tone provokes too strong tone of razgibatel or sgibatel. At the child the easy tension of extremities which is noticeable in the course of an undressing or clothing of the kid, and a tone which almost completely will paralyze the movements can be observed.
Perhaps also manifestations of a hypotone – weak tension. At a small hypotone at the child weakness in muscles can be shown, and at a strong hypotone the kid can not manage in time to begin to turn over, sit. Therefore, muscular dystonia becomes the reason of a delay of physical development of the child.
In the presence at the child of muscular dystonia regular visits of the specialist neurologist are necessary. The doctor has to define, displays of a disease and what method of treatment should be applied in each individual case are how strong. Treatment is carried out with use of neurologic drugs, massage, physiotherapy exercises. It is important to realize that treatment of muscular dystonia to last long enough – it several months till several years. At the correct therapy it is possible to correct completely motive functions at the child.
The nature of display of vegeto-vascular dystonia at the person (a disease vegetative dystonia, vascular dystonia also call) is functional. This state is defined by a symptom complex of different clinical manifestations which affect a number of systems and bodies. Deviations in work of a vegetative nervous system are the reason of development of vascular dystonia.
At patients of early age vascular dystonia arises in view of disagreements in extent of physical development and degree of a maturity of the neuroendocrine device. At people of mature age display of vegetanivny dystonia is promoted by existence of psychological exhaustion as consequences of the postponed serious illness, sleeplessnesses, chronic fatigue, inadequate diet and the wrong approach to food increased or very low exercise stresses and other factors. Displays of vegetative dysfunction are also possible at organic diseases of a brain.
In certain cases vegeto-vascular dystonia can have inborn character. Such patients very badly react to cold, during nervousness sweat and redden. Children with vascular dystonia can suffer a long time from an urine incontience at night.
Symptoms of vegetative dystonia are shown owing to a strong nervous tension, they can be as constants, and to change periodically. It is accepted to call such symptoms vegetovascular paroxysms. They begin to be shown by a headache, gradually pain arises also in heart, pulse becomes frequent, the person reddens or turns pale. Often at the person the attack of baseless scare, fever is shown. Manifestations of the general weakness, nausea, blackout, perspiration, lowering of blood pressure can be other symptoms of vascular dystonia. Similar attacks sometimes last several minutes, and can sometimes proceed till several o'clock. In most cases they pass independently, without treatment.
At this state decrease in a tone of veins provokes deterioration in blood circulation, and, as a result, dystonia of vessels of a brain causes headache attacks. Puffiness manifestations a century, small puffiness of the person can be symptoms of dystonia of vessels of a brain.
If at the person cardiovascular dystonia is shown, then its symptoms, as a rule, are the lowered blood pressure, pain in heart, a headache, a small appetite and some other the signs characteristic of vegeto-vascular dystonia. In view of strong influence of this state on the general vital rhythm of the person it is necessary to appoint treatment of cardiovascular dystonia, without tightening.
During a sudden exacerbation of vascular dystonia brushes grow often cold and are humidified, their color becomes cyanotic, in fingers the pricking or weak pain is felt. After the aggravation comes to an end, the person feels some more days weakness and weakness. Vegetovascular paroxysms are sometimes shown also in the form of a faint without spasms. The person recovers consciousness in a prone position quicker.
It is accepted to distinguish three types of dystonia of this form: cardial type, hypotonic type, hypertensive type.
Examination of vascular dystonia needs to be conducted as a syndrome, but not a separate illness. Treatment of vascular dystonia consists in use of mainly non-drug methods – hardenings, physical exercises, occupation by swimming, normalization of a day regimen. It is important to keep to a special diet, having refused the excessive use of salt, marinades, brines, strong coffee and tea. Also the psychotherapy, special massage of the head, phytotherapy is applied. As methods of prevention of developing of vascular dystonia it is important to avoid the strong nervous tension and vozbuzhdeniye, it is rational to alternate time of rest and work.
Neurocirculatory dystonia – the concept very close to the term "vegeto-vascular dystonia". This name of a state at which the tone of vessels owing to disturbances in work of a nervous system is broken.
The term "neurocirculatory dystonia" is used if at the patient dominance of cardiovascular frustration is observed.
Basis of this illness is disturbance of the correct vegetative regulation of functioning of internals. As a rule, at neurocirculatory dystonia distribution of disturbances on everything or almost on all organism takes place. Therefore, the patient can complain of manifestation of symptoms in a certain area, but at the same time to some extent they mention an organism in general. Allocate five main symptom complexes: kardialgichesky, respiratory, fluctuations of the ABP, thermoregulatory and dispepsichesky.
To stern of these phenomena at patients neurologic frustration, fatigue which arises after rather small loadings are observed. Also a number of the symptoms similar to symptoms of vegetative dystonia is shown.
The torsion dystonia
The torsion dystonia can be shown and as an independent illness, and as the torsion and dystonic syndrome arising as manifestation of some other diseases — gepatotserebralny dystrophy, epidemic encephalitis as injury effects at childbirth, etc.
The torsion dystonia is a hereditary illness, transfer type — heterogeneous. The disease is inherited both on dominant, and on recessive type. However most often the illness is inherited on dominant type. The first symptoms of the torsion dystonia are noted at the person at the age of 5-20: as a rule, this manifestation of involuntary movements in one extremity, most often lower. It is inconvenient to patient to go. In attempt of change of position of a body, at nervous excitement hyperkinesias become more expressed, extend. The patient can sometimes stiffen in unusual poses, style of his gait changes, it becomes shaken. Patients sometimes hardly can independently service themselves, but over time learn to adapt to disturbances. In the lying situation hyperkinesias decrease, in a dream they do not occur in general.
Diagnose the torsion dystonia, being guided by clinical data. Statement of the diagnosis is facilitated if similar cases already took place among the patient's family.
Treatment of the torsion dystonia is made by both conservative, and operational methods. Except medicamentous therapy by the patient physiotherapy exercises, balneotherapy are shown. To patients for whom the late stage of the torsion dystonia is diagnosed and there is a deformation of joints, can appoint orthopedic operations. At too fast progressing of an illness stereotaxic operations are appointed.
Diagnosis of dystonia
The clinical picture of symptoms of a disease is the main method of establishment of the diagnosis. But for its specification often the doctor appoints some additional analyses. So, carrying out analyses of urine and blood is helped to be established whether are present at an infection organism, toxins. Also in the course of poll the specialist has to find out whether dystonia symptoms at close relatives of the patient were shown, whether he ever got a craniocereberal injury.
The genetic analysis is sometimes necessary for obtaining more detailed data. For this purpose DNA of the patient receive from blood test and define existence of the pathological genes connected with certain types of dystonia. At dystonia the special attention is paid to differential diagnosis which allows to exclude existence of diseases with similar symptoms. So, if the patient has cardial complaints, changes from heart, then it is necessary to exclude rheumatism, first of all. It is also necessary to consider that vegetative disturbances are quite often combined with symptoms of a dysplasia of connecting fabric that reminds displays of inborn heart disease, a rheumatic carditis, not rheumatic carditis. In view of existence of other symptoms it is necessary to exclude arterial hypertension, infectious diseases, mental disorders, bronchial asthma.
Prevention of dystonia
Considering the fact that dystonia, first of all, is a complex problem, it is very important to undertake measures for prevention of this illness. To prevent displays of dystonia, healthy food is necessary: it is necessary to refuse the use of strong coffee also tea, to limit salty and hot dishes, to exclude alcohol. Full refusal of smoking is not less important. As the products useful to the prevention of dystonia, it is recommended to use potatoes dishes, prunes, eggplants, green peas.
If the diagnosis "dystonia" is already established to the person, then for the prevention of exacerbations of an illness it is necessary to accept sedative medicines. Tinctura Valerianae will be suitable for this purpose, for example.
To improve a condition of the patient and to prevent developing of an illness it is possible by means of active lifestyle. Everyday exercise stresses of moderate character, and also occupation by group sports, fitness, yoga help not only to activate all processes in an organism, but also to effectively remove an emotional pressure. It is necessary to walk or work as often as possible in the fresh air – it considerably improves health.
If dystonia considerably worsens life and work, then it is not necessary to self-medicate or ignore displays of a disease. By means of specialists it is possible to pick up the adequate methods considerably improving a condition of the patient.