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December 4, 2013
The dysarthtia is a change of the speech of which disturbance of a pronunciation is characteristic. This disturbance is directly connected with defeat of the central nervous system of organic character.
How the dysarthtia is shown?
If to compare a dysarthtia to other kinds of changes of the speech of the person, then in this case not the pronunciation by the person of certain sounds, and the proiznositelny party of the speech in general is broken. At the patients suffering from a dysarthtia mobility of bodies which take part in forming of the speech (a soft palate, language, lips) is limited. Thereof the articulation is at a loss.
At the adult who suffers from a dysarthtia disturbances of reading, the letter, acoustical perception of the speech are not observed. At the sick child disturbance of a pronunciation of words is noted. Therefore, not only disturbance of reading and the letter, but also the general underdevelopment of the speech is possible. That is if the dysarthtia at the adult only prevents it to speak normally, then the dysarthtia at the child interferes with his normal development.
At people with a dysarthtia the mimic and speech muscles have limited mobility. The child with such symptom speaks is greased, indistinctly. Its voice can be silent or very sharp. The speech is not smooth, breath is broken. In certain cases the speech or is slowed down, or, on the contrary, accelerates. At the person suffering from a dysarthtia disturbances of a phonation are noted, intonation of the speech can change. Manifestations of a dysarthtia depend on that, where exactly in TsNS or in a peripheral nervous system defeat , and also from weight of disturbance, etc. is localized.
At children the dysarthtia can have both an easy, and severe form. The dysarthtia of a severe form is, as a rule, observed at children with cerebral spastic infantile paralysis. At an easy form of an illness at the child moderate disturbances of an articulation are observed owing to what his speech is clear to surrounding people, however at the same time it remains indistinct.
At the erased dysarthtia at the child bad diction, the muffled speech, replacement of some sounds in words, difficult for a pronunciation, can be noted. Children very often badly eat with the erased dysarthtia form as it is difficult for them to chew, especially firm food. It is difficult for them to perform some operations connected with hygienic norms, for example, to rinse a mouth. Such child can clumsily perform some operations, especially those which are connected with need of use of small motility of hands.
However rather often erased form of a dysarthtia remains unnoticed by parents as the child with this symptom does not differ strikingly from his peers. Nevertheless, the individual help of the logopedist and long correction is necessary for such children. The erased dysarthtia can be diagnosed for children of 3 years, however most often such diagnosis is established to the child after five-year age when symptoms become more expressed. It is important to consult at the obituary which will report whether it is necessary to carry out drug treatment, and will read the forecast.
Why the dysarthtia is shown?
To carry out adequate treatment and to relieve the child of the expressed manifestations of a dysarthtia, it is necessary to define origins of this state. Specialists always connect this disturbance of the speech with a certain pathological process in activity of the central nervous system of the person.
In most cases the motor dysarthtia develops at those children whom even during pre-natal development the certain factors which are negatively influencing development of a brain influenced. It can be severe toxicosis, viral diseases of mother, a long hypoxia of a fruit, etc. Therefore the pregnant woman has to pass regularly inspection and strictly follow a doctor's advice.
The speech dysarthtia sometimes is a consequence of the hematencephalons occurring at the child at prompt or at long childbirth. Hemorrhages can provoke later an innervation of those muscles which define formation of sounds.
The dysarthtia at preschool children and at children at early age can be shown owing to the postponed infectious diseases and heavy inflammatory processes in an organism. Sometimes under the influence of these factors at the child the erased dysarthtia form develops. It is important to find timely this symptom and together with the specialist to define accurate planning of correction of this problem of the speech.
The dysarthtia at adults also in certain cases develops owing to the postponed serious illnesses. Such disturbance of the speech is often shown as an effect of infectious diseases of a brain and its covers.
To improve a condition of the patient, important timely and to correctly establish the diagnosis and to realize that scheme of treatment which was appointed by the doctor. Parents with special attention have to treat what is advised by the logopedist as the modern logopedics has many techniques directed to improvement of a condition of the child suffering from a dysarthtia in an arsenal.
At the adult the dysarthtia often is an effect of the had stroke, disturbances of vascular character, a brain tumor, Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson, Huntington. Also the dysarthtia is sometimes observed as a symptom of multiple sclerosis and asthenic bulbar paralysis. In more exceptional cases the dysarthtia appears after poisonings, injuries, overdose with medicines, the systematic use of drugs and alcohol.
How to cure a dysarthtia?
In the course of establishment of the diagnosis the logopedist without fail conducts research of features of disturbance of a sound pronunciation, and also pays attention to the general condition of the speech.
As a rule, treatment of a dysarthtia at children practices as combined effect on that reason which provoked this symptom. Also complex therapy includes use of special logopedic techniques, performance of the exercises promoting development of small motility. The regular physiotherapy exercises practice. The detailed scheme how to treat a dysarthtia in each case, the attending physician develops.
If at the child the severe form of a dysarthtia is observed, then he needs supervision of specialists in specialized institutions for children. The erased dysarthtia it is possible to treat in out-patient conditions. However regular supervision from different specialists is required — the logopedist, the neurologist, the psychologist. Drug treatment which is capable to improve considerably the condition of people with such disturbance of the speech, does not exist today.
Parents should not rely only on the doctor. The logopedist always recommends to them to make all efforts to stimulate the child with a dysarthtia it is correct to speak. Therefore both exercises, and massage, and special occupations need to be carried out regularly and in house conditions. Specialists recommend to begin treatment of children with a dysarthtia as soon as possible that in school the child could feel and adapt to the receipt period surely in the conditions of children's collective.
Sometimes training in special logopedic groups in kindergarten or at school is shown to children with such symptom. In collective it is possible to gain notable effect of use of special game techniques. Also modern logopedists widely use special computer programs.
Treatment of a dysarthtia at adults consists in therapy of that disease which provoked it. Also trainings of an articulation by means of special exercises, massage practice.