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Epidermophitia of feet and inguinal epidermophitia
Epidermophitia of feet – an illness which occurs at residents of all countries of the world now. It is so accepted to call the whole group of fungus diseases of which the general localization, and also similar symptoms and manifestations is characteristic. The illness occurs at people of any age, however it is diagnosed for children very seldom. As a rule, the disease passes into a chronic form, has recurrent character. One more important feature of an illness is its distribution among people of certain professions and occupations: from an epidermophitia of feet those who work in baths and shower, the people working in hot workshops, miners, etc. most often suffer. The illness meets at city dwellers more often.
Reasons of an epidermophitia of feet
The disease differs in the high level of contageousness. The healthy person can catch the epidermophitia activator at visit of a shower or bath, on beach rest, owing to carrying someone else's footwear, socks or tights. The matter is that the sick person in a corneous layer of epidermis has a large number of threads of a mycelium and dispute of a mushroom. Therefore, constantly there is their allocation in environment that provokes an adversity from the point of view of epidemiology.
The fungus - a disease-producing factor stays generally in a saprophytic state. But on condition of impact on it of some factors the fungus becomes pathogenic. It can occur at an intertrigo, continuous carrying inconvenient footwear, to manifestation of perspiration of legs, attritions, in the presence of shift of pH of sweat in the alkaline party. Besides, the general condition of a human body is very important, the fungus can become pathogenic and at diseases of nervous, endocrine systems, at disturbances of functions of immune system of an organism, in a case of vessels, a lack of an organism of certain vitamins and microelements etc. The illness can also provoke manifestation of certain weather conditions, namely — too high temperature of air and humidity
Symptoms of an epidermophitia of feet
Physicians allocate several different forms which show an epidermophitia of feet: squamous, disgidrotichesky, intertriginozny. The epidermophitia of nails, and also a form of an illness which is shown as a result of allergic reaction of an organism is separately allocated. However, such classification is considered somewhat conditional, forms of an illness are sometimes combined among themselves, or the illness passes from one form into other. At the same time disease symptoms also change.
At a squamous form of an illness on skin of the arches of feet of the patient small reddening and a peeling gradually appears. At the same time education both small, and enough extensive centers is possible. easy reddening and peeling. The centers of defeat can be both small, and extensive. Sometimes the person also complains of periodic displays of a moderate itch. In this case it is about the most dangerous illness form in the epidemiological plan, if diagnosis is not carried out timely, the person can simply not notice developments of a disease, and, as a result, to be a source of distribution of an infection for the people surrounding it. Therefore treatment of an epidermophitia of feet of a squamous form has to be carried out immediately.
Sometimes at an exacerbation of an illness the squamous form passes into disgidrotichesky. Possibly and involution of a disgidrotichesky form of an illness in squamous. Initially there is a defeat of one foot, later the disease passes also to the second foot.
Development of an intertriginozny form of an illness generally develops at people with softly expressed squamous form. However also its independent manifestation is possible. In this case defeat of interdigital folds, most often between the fourth and fifth fingers, in more exceptional cases – between the third and fourth is noted. Sometimes pathological process also affects a flexion surface of fingers and the back of foot. In interdigital folds of the patient there are cracks which the epidermis exfoliating in process surrounds on the periphery a whitish layer. The struck places often itch, become wet, and at development of erosion of people feels morbidity.
The illness proceeds a long span. Sometimes in a cold season it stops, and in summertime there is its aggravation again. Besides, cracks on feet and the corneous layer of skin affected with an illness create the conditions favorable for development of thrombophlebitis, a chronic recurrent ugly face of shins.
Sometimes consecutive infection joins a disease. In this case in bubbles there are muddy contents and if bubbles are opened, pus follows from them. Against this phenomenon often there is a development of a lymphangitis and lymphadenitis. When the inflammation fades, erosion gradually heal, squamous character of the center is noted. The severe disease with accession of consecutive infection when the patient is required to be treated in a hospital is in some cases noted. The long course of a disease is characteristic of this form, during the spring and summer period there are aggravations.
At an acute form of an epidermophitia of people notes headaches, a febricula, increase of body temperature, increase in lymph nodes. On a body there are secondary rashes called by epidermofitida. Duration of acute process – from one to two months. At the correct approach to treatment the disease well gives in to therapy, but development of recurrence is sometimes possible.
At damage of nails changes of free edge of a nail are initially observed: on it yellow strips and spots appear. Later the nail plate is thickened and turns yellow. It becomes friable, easily crumbles, and under a plate the horn masses (a so-called hyponychial hyperkeratosis) collect. In other cases the course of a disease occurs a little in a different way: the nail gradually becomes thin then it is torn away from a nail bed (the phenomenon called onikholizis). The most characteristic is damage of the first and fifth toes. Plates of nails on fingers of hands at the same time are not exposed to pathological process.
At suspicion on development of this pathology in the person the diagnosis is established taking into account existence of characteristic clinical manifestations. At detection of threads of a mycelium at microscopic examination the diagnosis is confirmed. It is important to differentiate the diagnosis it is carried out with psoriasis, an intertriginozny and disgidrotichesky epidermophitia, rubromikozy nails, intertriginozny eczema, an intertriginozny kanidoz. That microscopic examination was the most informative, material for it undertakes on the periphery of the centers from the matserirovanny exfoliating epidermis. In the course of diagnosis to distinguish epidermophitia mycelium threads from other mushrooms, cultural diagnosis is carried out. Inoculation of medium is for this purpose carried out.
It is possible to practice treatment of a disease after establishment of the diagnosis and in house conditions, at the same time having got preliminary advice of the specialist. The main drugs for treatment are implemented in pharmacy chain without recipes of the doctor. Careful leaving and hygiene of feet is also important. However at development in a sick diabetes mellitus, at display of a repeated infection or heavy disease it is necessary to carry out surely therapy only under strict control of the specialist.
On nonprescription sale available the means which are effectively operating in this case: Terbinafin (Lamizil), Clotrimazolum (Lotriminum) Miconazolum (Micatinum), tolnaftat (Tinaktin). They can be applied in the form of creams, lotions, gels, sprays, ointments. All these preprata are applied locally, applied on the struck places on skin. Treatment continues from one week to six weeks, depending on a form of an illness and recommendations of the doctor. At emergence on foot of blisters it is necessary to make washing of feet special solutions, and, such procedure is made not less than three times a day till that time until from bubbles liquid disappears. It is also reasonable to carry out trays for legs with permanganate potassium solution addition. Also solutions of Furacilin, Aethacridinum are for this purpose applied.
When skin on feet dries up, further treatment is carried out by means of local antifungal means. Some doctors advise to alternate use of different forms of such means. For example, it is possible to use ointment in the morning, and in the evening – gel.
At treatment of a disgidrotichesky epidermophitia the same methods practice, as at therapy of eczema. Intravenously solutions of calcium of a gluconate, Calcii chloridum, Natrium thiosulfuricum, and also vitamins join. If the disgidrotichesky or intertriginozny epidermophitia is diagnosed for the patient and at the same time complications which are expressed by a lymphangitis and lymphadenitis take place, then to the patient the course of treatment antibiotics can be appointed.
In the course of the main therapy it is also necessary to carry out disinfection of all shoes which were worn by the patient, and also to practice other actions necessary for the prevention of distribution of an illness. In particular, it is important to provide careful care of feet that considerably facilitates process of direct treatment of a disease. Feet have to be constant pure and dry: if the person takes a bath or visits the pool, after that feet need to be wiped dry, at the same time carefully wiping skin in zones between fingers. The people inclined to fungus diseases, have to have a footwear obligatory leather, and in house conditions it is the best of all to wear only the socks from cotton fabric absorbing moisture. Also surely it is necessary to air periodically footwear that she managed to dry completely.
In view of features of distribution of a disease it is necessary to wear surely rubber shoes in a public shower or the pool, and also to conform to other rules which are applied at care of feet of legs. After washing of a bathroom or acceptance of a shower it is necessary to dry area of a groin initially. After that are dried by a foot towel. Besides, it is necessary to put on socks and only then underwear at first. Such simple methods will promote the prevention of distribution of a fungal infection up, respectively, the inguinal epidermophitia can so prevent development further.
People who already had similar defeat of feet have to consider surely that only at full completion of a course of treatment it is possible to avoid repeated display of an illness in the future.
The fungus which provokes an epidermophitia remains and on clothes therefore it is necessary to wash things in hot water, surely using means for washing and whitening. It is important to monitor carefully and implementation of other rules of hygiene.
Reasons of an inguinal epidermophitia
Inguinal epidermophitia call a dermatomycosis which affects epidermis. The causative agent of this illness is Epidermophyton floccosum fungus. The illness is transmitted through use of various objects of use. It can be both basts, and linen, and thermometers and other objects. Also the disease can catch in shower, pools, a bath. The factors influencing development of an illness are also high humidity and air temperature, strong sweating at the person, existence of damages on skin. Therefore, to learn about what is an epidermophitia on own experience, practically each person can.
The inguinal epidermophitia is shown by development on a surface of skin of spots of pink color which are a little shelled. Their diameter initially makes about 1 cm, but gradually symptoms of a disease are shown by growth of spots on the periphery. At the same time the inflammation centers in the center of a spot gradually disappear. As a result on a body of the person there are big ring-shaped spots having red color which in the course of merge form the scalloped centers. Borders of the centers which are emphasized with the hyperemic roller on which surface there can be bubbles are brightly expressed. In the course of distribution of rash the center of a spot gradually becomes pure. As diagnosis testifies, at patients defeat of inguinal area, a surface of hips, both above, and inside is most often observed, the scrotum, sometimes spots extend to a mezhjyagodichny fold. Extremely seldom the disease takes a penis, area armpits, a zone under a breast. The patient is often disturbed by an itch and sensations of discomfort what follows from that treatment of an inguinal epidermophitia and further prevention of a disease have to be carried out immediately.
As a rule, it is possible to diagnose diseases, being guided by careful survey of the place of defeat, and also considering that, rash is located where exactly. The doctor estimates all symptoms of a disease, studies history of its development. For confirmation of the diagnosis it is carried out researches of scales of skin from places of defeat by means of a microscope. Identification of a disease-producing factor allows to finalize the diagnosis during microscopic examination. For confirmation of the diagnosis cultural research also sometimes practices.
If the inguinal epidermophitia proceeds sharply, then for treatment of an illness use of lotions from solution of silver nitrate, resorcin solution, and also use of antifungal ointments practices. Besides, intake of antihistaminic drugs is appointed. Later, after vesiculation elimination, iodine tincture, sulfur-tar ointment, anti-mycotic means is applied to topical administration. It is important to dl of prevention of an illness to follow surely standards of personal hygiene, to prevent excessive perspiration. All other preventive methods are similar to the prevention measures actual at an epidermophitia of feet.
Section: Dermatology (Skin diseases)